新时代的中国能源发展

(2020年12月)

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

Energy in China’s New Era

The State Council Information Office of

the People’s Republic of China

December 2020

Contents

Preamble 

I. Developing High-Quality Energy in the New Era 

II. Historic Achievements in Energy Development 

III.An All-Round Effort to Reform Energy Consumption  

IV. Building a Clean and Diversified Energy Supply System 

V. Leveraging the Role of Innovation as the Primary Driver of Development 

VI. Deeper Reform of the Energy System in All Areas 

VII.Strengthening International Energy Cooperation Across the Board 

Conclusion 

Preamble

Energy is the foundation and driving force for the progress of human civilization. It matters to the economy, to people’s lives, to national security, and to the survival and development of humanity. It is of vital importance in advancing social and economic development and public welfare.

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), a relatively complete energy industry system has been established. This has largely been achieved through self-reliance and hard work. Since the launch of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978, to adapt to the rapid development of the economy and society, China has promoted the development of energy in a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner. Today, China has become the world’s largest energy producer and consumer. Its transition to efficient energy utilization has been the fastest in the world.

Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has entered a new era, as has its energy development. In 2014, President Xi Jinping put forward a new energy security strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation , pointing out the direction for the quality growth of the energy industry with Chinese characteristics in the new era. China upholds the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development with focus on high quality and restructuring of the supply side. It has been working on all fronts to reform the ways energy is consumed, to build a clean and diversified energy supply system, to implement an innovation-driven energy strategy, to further the reform of the energy system, and to enhance international energy cooperation. China has entered a stage of high-quality energy development.

A thriving civilization calls for a good eco-environment. Facing increasingly severe global problems such as climate change, environmental risks and challenges, and energy and resource constraints, China embraces the vision of a global community of shared future and accelerates its transformation towards green and low-carbon development in economy and society. In addition to promoting clean and low-carbon energy use domestically, China has been an active participant in global energy governance, exploring a path of worldwide sustainable energy alongside other countries. At the general debates of the 75th United Nations General Assembly in September 2020, President Xi pledged that China will scale up its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions by adopting more vigorous policies and measures, striving to have carbon dioxide emissions peak before 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. In the new era, China’s energy strategy will provide forceful support for sound and sustained economic and social development, and make a significant contribution to ensuring world energy security, addressing global climate change, and boosting global economic growth.

The Chinese government is publishing this white paper to provide a full picture of China’s achievements in its energy development and its major policies and measures for energy reform.

The new energy security strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation was put forward by Xi Jinping at the conference of the Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs under the CPC Central Committee held on June 13, 2014. Four Reforms and One Cooperation refer to: one reform to improve the energy consumption structure by containing unnecessary consumption; one reform to build a more diversified energy supply structure; one reform to improve energy technologies to upgrade the industry; one reform to optimize the energy system for faster growth of the energy sector; comprehensive cooperation with other countries to realize energy security in an open environment.

I. Developing High-Quality Energy in the New Era

China’s energy strategy in the new era endeavors to adapt to domestic and international changes and meet new requirements. China will continue to develop high-quality energy to better serve economic and social progress, support the Beautiful China and Healthy China initiatives, and build a clean and beautiful world.

1. The New Energy Security Strategy

In its energy plans for the new era, China has adopted a new strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation.

– One reform to improve the energy consumption structure by containing unnecessary consumption. China is determined to carry out the principle of prioritizing energy conservation, and has tightened the control of total energy consumption and energy use intensity, and enforced energy conservation in all areas of social and economic development. It resolves to adjust its industrial structure. It emphasizes energy conservation in the process of urbanization, and works to develop a green and low-carbon transport system. China encourages hard work and thrift and calls people to conserve energy and work and live with green energy, and move faster towards an energy-saving society.

– One reform to build a more diversified energy supply structure. In the direction of green development, China has been vigorously promoting the clean and efficient utilization of fossil energy, prioritizing the development of renewable energy, developing nuclear power in a safe and orderly manner, and raising the proportion of non-fossil energy in the energy supply structure. China has intensified efforts for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas resources, to increase reserve and production volumes. China has been building the production, supply, storage and sales systems for coal, electricity, oil and gas, while improving energy transportation networks, storage facilities, the emergency response system for energy storage, transportation and peak load management, and enhancing its supply capacity for safer and higher-quality energy.

– One reform to improve energy technologies to upgrade the industry. China is implementing the innovation-driven development strategy, building a system that nurtures innovation in green energy technologies, and upgrading energy technologies and equipment in an all-round way. China has strengthened basic research on energy, innovation in generic and disruptive technologies, and original and integrated innovation. China has started to integrate digital, big-data and AI technologies with technologies for clean and efficient energy exploration and exploitation, with a focus on smart energy technologies, to turn these technologies and related industries into new growth drivers for industrial upgrading.

– One reform to optimize the energy system for faster growth of the energy sector. China is determined to promote energy market reform, to marketize energy commodities and form a unified and open market with orderly competition. China is furthering energy pricing reform, to create a mechanism in which the market determines the price. China has been working to modernize its law-based energy governance system, developing new models of efficient energy management, and pushing forward reforms to streamline government administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade service. It has strengthened planning and policy guidance for the energy sector, and improved the regulatory system of the energy industry.

– Comprehensive cooperation with other countries to realize energy security in an open environment. Under the principle of equality and mutual benefit, China is opening its door wider to the world. China promotes green and sustainable energy under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and endeavors to improve energy infrastructure connectivity. China has been an active participant in global energy governance, increasing energy cooperation and exchanges with other countries, and facilitating international trade and investment in the energy sector. China has joined the international community in building a new model of energy cooperation, maintaining energy market stability, and safeguarding common energy security.

2. Guiding Philosophies for Energy Policies in the New Era

– Putting people first. China upholds the principle of energy development for the people, by the people and answerable to the people. Its primary goal is to ensure energy supply for people’s life and to ensure that the poverty-stricken population have access to electricity. To this end, China has been improving energy infrastructure related to people’s life and public services, and has integrated energy development with poverty eradication. China has launched programs on poverty reduction through energy support, which exemplify the fundamental role of energy supply, infrastructure and services in the battle against poverty.

– Promoting a clean and low-carbon energy. China embraces the vision of harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, directing its efforts towards clean and low-carbon energy. China promotes green energy production and consumption, and has improved the relevant structures accordingly. China is increasing the proportion of clean energy and non-fossil energy at the consumption stage, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and pollutant discharge by large margins, and working hard to accelerate its transformation towards green and low-carbon development for the Beautiful China initiative.

– Ensuring the core status of innovation. China is focusing on transforming the energy sector through technical advancement. China is actively promoting independent innovation in energy technologies, and increasing sci-tech input in the national energy development. With enterprises playing a key role in innovation, China has been promoting close collaboration along the energy industrial chain between enterprises, universities and research institutes, to reduce technology imports and boost independent innovation so as to develop a new model where innovations of both upper and lower streams well interact and coordinate with each other.

– Pursuing development through reform. China will fully leverage the decisive role of the market in allocating energy resources, and ensure the government better play its part in this regard. It is endeavoring to advance market-oriented reform in the competitive areas of the energy sector, further display the role of the market mechanism, and build a high-quality energy market system. China has highlighted the guiding role of its energy strategy and planning, formed a law-based governance system and a regulatory system in the energy industry, and improved the financial and fiscal systems that support green and low-carbon energy transformation. All these measures aim to unlock potential and provide support for quality growth of the energy sector.

– Building a global community of shared future. Confronted by the severe impact of climate change, China advocates a global community of shared future, greater international cooperation on energy governance, and a new round of energy reform directed towards clean and low-carbon development. China has joined other countries in seeking sustainable energy and building a clean and beautiful world.

II. Historic Achievements in Energy Development

China is committed to driving an energy revolution. As a result, major changes have taken place in the production and use of energy and historic achievements have been realized in energy development. Energy production and consumption are being optimized, energy efficiency has increased significantly, and energy use has become more convenient for both work and life. China’s capacity to ensure energy security has been strengthened. All this provides important support to quality economic development, victory in the battle against poverty, and building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

1. Growing Capacity to Ensure Energy Supply

A diversified energy production infrastructure consisting of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, nuclear energy, new energy and renewable energy is in place. Preliminary calculations show that China’s primary energy production in 2019 reached 3.97 billion tons of standard coal, making it the world’s largest energy producer.

Coal remains the basic energy source. Since 2012, the annual production of raw coal has ranged between 3.41 and 3.97 billion tons. Crude oil production remains stable. Since 2012, the annual production of crude oil has ranged between 190 and 210 million tons. The production of natural gas has increased notably, from 110.6 billion cu m in 2012 to 176.2 billion cubic meters in 2019. China’s electricity supply capacity has risen to a cumulative installed capacity of 2.01 billion kW in 2019, up 75 percent since 2012, and an electricity output of 7.5 trillion kWh, up 50 percent. Renewable energy resources have expanded rapidly, with cumulative installed capacities of hydropower, wind power, and solar photovoltaic (PV) power each ranking top in the world. As of the end of 2019, the total installed capacity of nuclear power plants under construction and in operation reached 65.93 million kW, the second largest in the world. The installed capacity of nuclear power plants under construction ranked first.

Energy transport capacity has risen remarkably. China has built natural gas trunk lines measuring over 87,000 km, oil trunk lines totaling 55,000 km, and 302,000 km of electricity transmission lines of 330 kv or more.

The energy reserve system has been steadily improved. China has built nine national oil reserve bases; it has achieved preliminary results in building a natural gas production, supply, reserve and sale system; the coordinated guarantee system for coal production and transport is sound; the country has become a global leader in operating a secure and stable power grid; and its capacity in comprehensive energy emergency response has been strengthened significantly.

2. Remarkable Achievements in Optimizing Energy Conservation and Consumption

Significant improvement has been made in energy efficiency. Since 2012, energy consumption per unit of GDP has been reduced by 24.4 percent, equivalent to 1.27 billion tons of standard coal. From 2012 to 2019, China saw an average annual growth of 7 percent in the economy, while annual energy consumption rose by only 2.8 percent.

The shift towards clean and low-carbon energy consumption is accelerating. Preliminary calculations show that in 2019, coal consumption accounted for 57.7 percent of total energy consumption, a decrease of 10.8 percentage points from 2012; the consumption of clean energy (natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power) accounted for 23.4 percent of total energy consumption, an increase of 8.9 percentage points over 2012. Non-fossil energy accounted for 15.3 percent of total energy consumption, up 5.6 percentage points against 2012. With this China has reached the target of raising the share of non-fossil energy to 15 percent in total energy consumption by 2020. The number of new energy vehicles is rising rapidly. In 2019 the total number of new energy vehicles reached 3.8 million, with 1.2 million new energy vehicles going on road that year. Both of these figures represent more than half of the global totals. As of the end of 2019, there were 1.2 million electric-vehicle charging stations nationwide, constituting the largest charging network in the world, and effectively improving energy efficiency and optimizing energy consumption in the transport sector.

3. Rapid Improvements in Energy Technology

China continues to pursue technological innovation in the energy sector. Its energy technologies are continuously improving, and technological progress has become a basic driver for the transformation of the energy industry. There are complete industrial chains for the manufacturing of clean energy equipment for hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, and solar power. China has successfully developed and manufactured the world’s largest single-unit hydropower generators, with a capacity of 1 million kW; it is able to manufacture a full range of wind turbines with a maximum single-unit capacity of 10 mw; and it continues to establish new world bests in the conversion efficiency of solar PV cells. China has built a number of nuclear power plants using advanced third-generation technologies, and made significant breakthroughs in a number of nuclear energy technologies such as new-generation nuclear power generation and small modular reactors. Its technological capabilities in oil and gas exploration and development keep improving. It leads the world in technologies such as the high-efficiency development of low-permeability crude oil and heavy oil, and a new generation of compound chemical flooding. The technology and equipment for shale oil and gas exploration and development have greatly improved, and successful natural gas hydrate production tests have been completed. China is developing green, efficient and intelligent coal mining technology. It has achieved mechanization in 98 percent of its large coal mines, and mastered the technology for producing oil and gas from coal. It has built a safe, reliable, and world-leading power grid which is the largest across the globe, with reliability of supply at the forefront of the world. A large number of new energy technologies, new businesses, and new models such as “Internet +” smart energy, energy storage, block chain, and integrated energy services are booming.

4. Significant Progress in Eco-Environmental Friendliness of the Energy Sector

China sees green energy as an important measure to enhance eco-environmental progress, and resolutely fights pollution, especially air pollution. Its capabilities in clean coal mining and utilization have greatly improved, and significant results have been achieved in regulating coal mining subsidence areas and building green mines. It has amended the Law on Air Pollution Prevention and Control to strengthen the prevention and control of pollution from coal and other energy sources, and ensure that more environmentally friendly energy sources are used to replace coal in equal or reduced amount in newly-built, renovated, or expanded coal-consuming projects in key areas for air pollution control. The green development of the energy sector has significantly improved air quality, and the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and soot have dropped notably. Green development of the energy sector has played an important role in reducing carbon emissions. By 2019, carbon emission intensity in China had decreased by 48.1 percent compared with 2005, which exceeded the target of reducing carbon emission intensity by 40 to 45 percent between 2005 and 2020, reversing the trend of rapid carbon dioxide emission growth.

5. Continuous Improvement in the Energy Governance Mechanism

China is making every effort to ensure that the market plays a greater role in the energy sector. Now, in a better business environment and a more viable market, market entities and individuals enjoy more convenient services and find it easier to start businesses. Market access for foreign capital in the energy sector has been extended, private investment is growing, and investment entities have become more diverse. Policies on power generation and consumption plans have been relaxed in an orderly manner, trading institutions can operate independently and in accordance with regulations, and the power market has further developed. China has accelerated reforms such as the deregulation of the oil and gas exploration market and the circulation of mining rights, reform of the pipeline network operation mechanism, and the dynamic management of crude oil imports. It has improved the construction of oil and gas trading centers. China encourages the market to play a decisive role in determining energy prices. It has further relaxed control on the prices in competitive areas, and has preliminarily established a reasonable pricing mechanism for power transmission and distribution and oil and gas pipeline networks. It coordinates energy reform with law-based governance, and the legal framework regarding the energy sector has been improved. An energy governance mechanism covering strategies, plans, policies, standards, supervision, and services is in place.

6. Solid Benefits for People’s Lives

Ensuring public wellbeing and improving people’s lives is China’s fundamental goal in energy development. China is ensuring that urban and rural residents have access to basic energy supply and services, as a fundamental element in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and supporting rural revitalization. From 2016 to 2019, the total investment in transforming and upgrading rural power grids reached RMB830 billion, and the average power outage time in rural areas was reduced to about 15 hours per year. The quality of power services for rural residents has improved significantly. From 2013 to 2015 China implemented an action plan to ensure access to electricity for every citizen, and completed this historic task by the end of 2015. It has implemented poverty alleviation projects based on solar PV power generation, and other energy-related poverty alleviation projects. China prioritizes poverty-stricken areas in planning energy development projects and has introduced energy projects for the benefit of the rural residents. This has promoted economic development in poverty-stricken areas and raised the incomes of the poor. It has improved the infrastructure for natural gas utilization, supplied natural gas to more areas, and improved its ability to ensure gas supply for people’s daily life. Significant progress has been made in clean heating in northern China, with improvements in the energy use and living environment of urban and rural residents. As of the end of 2019, clean heating in northern China covered a floor space of 11.6 billion sq m, an increase of 5.1 billion sq m over 2016.

III. An All-Round Effort to Reform Energy Consumption

China perseveres with its fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment. Prioritizing energy saving, it understands that energy conservation means increasing resources, reducing pollution, and benefiting humanity, and exercises energy saving throughout the whole process and in all areas of economic and social development.

1. Implementing a Dual Control System of Total Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity

A dual control system of total energy consumption and energy intensity is in place. China sets the targets of total energy consumption and energy intensity for different provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government and applies oversight and checks over the performance of local governments at all levels. It has introduced the energy-saving index into the performance evaluation system of eco-environmental progress and green development, to guide the transformation of the development philosophy. It breaks down the dual control targets of total energy consumption and energy intensity for key energy consumers, and evaluates their performance accordingly to strengthen energy-saving management.

2. Improving Laws, Regulations and Standards for Energy Conservation

China has revised the Energy Conservation Law. It has put in place an energy-saving system in key areas including industry, construction and transport as well as in public institutions. It continues to improve the supporting legal institutions for energy conservation supervision, energy-efficiency labeling, energy-saving checks on fixed assets investment projects, and energy conservation management of key energy consumers. It has strengthened standard-setting as a constraining factor and improved energy-saving standards system. It has carried out 100 projects to upgrade energy efficiency standards, enacted more than 340 national energy-saving standards, including almost 200 mandatory standards, covering most high energy-consuming industries and final energy consumption products. China has strengthened oversight over energy-saving law enforcement, reinforced operational and post-operational supervision, and exercised strict accountability for law enforcement to ensure the effective implementation of energy conservation laws, regulations, and mandatory standards.

3. Improving Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Incentives

Corporate income tax and value-added tax incentives are awarded to energy-saving businesses. China encourages the imports of energy-saving technologies and equipment, and controls the exports of energy-intensive and heavy-polluting products. China is improving the green financial system, and makes use of energy efficiency credits and green bonds to support energy conservation projects. It is exploring new ground in pricing to advance green development. Differential pricing, time-of-use pricing, and tiered pricing for electricity and natural gas have been adopted. China is improving its policies of environment-friendly electricity pricing to arouse the enthusiasm of market entities and the public in energy conservation. It has conducted trials of paid use of and trading in energy-using right in four provinces and cities including Zhejiang, and carbon emissions trading in seven provinces and cities including Beijing. The government is promoting energy performance contracting (EPC) and developing integrated energy services, and encourages innovations in energy-saving technology and business models. It has strengthened the management of demand-side power use and implemented a market response mechanism to guide the economical, orderly and rational utilization of electricity. A “leader board” of best energy-savers has been put in place to increase the efficiency of final energy consumption products, energy-intensive industries, and public institutions.

4. Improving Energy Efficiency in Key Areas

China is doing all it can to optimize the industrial structure, develop advanced manufacturing, high-tech industry and modern services with low energy consumption, and promote the intelligent and clean transformation of traditional industries. China has sped up the transformation to green, recycling and low-carbon industry, and implemented green manufacturing on all fronts; put in place monitoring, law enforcement and diagnostic mechanisms for energy conservation, and carried out energy efficiency benchmarking; raised the energy-saving standards of new buildings, expanded the energy-saving renovation of existing buildings, and improved the structure of energy consumption in construction. It is developing a highly efficient and comprehensive transport system with lower energy consumption, promoting the use of clean energy in transport, and enhancing energy efficiency of vehicles and other means of transport. It is building energy-saving public institutions, to set an example for the rest of society. A market-oriented system of green technology innovation will be put in place to encourage the R&D, transfer and popularization of green technology. China is promoting national key energy-saving and low-carbon technologies, particularly for the transport sector, and energy-saving industrial equipment. The government encourages extensive public involvement in energy conservation, and is raising public awareness of frugality, promoting simple, modest, green and low-carbon lifestyles, and opposing extravagance and excessive consumption.

5. Promoting Clean Final Energy Consumption

Focusing on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding areas, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Fenwei Plain (the Fenhe Plain, the Weihe Plain and their surroundings in the Yellow River Basin), China is working to reduce and find substitutes for coal consumption, and taking comprehensive measures to control the use of bulk coal. It is promoting clean and efficient coal-fired furnaces, and replacing inefficient and highly-polluting coal with natural gas, electricity and renewable energy. Now, fiscal and price policies are in place to support clean heating in winter in northern China to improve air quality. China is replacing coal and oil with electricity in final energy consumption, and popularizing new energy vehicles, heat pumps, electric furnaces, and other new forms of energy consumption. It has strengthened the development and connectivity of natural gas infrastructure, and made the use of natural gas more efficient in urban areas, as well as in industrial fuel, power generation, and transport. It is promoting natural gas CCHP (combined cooling heating and power), decentralized renewable energy, and multi-energy coordination and energy cascade use in final energy consumption.

IV. Building a Clean and Diversified Energy Supply System

Proceeding from its basic national conditions and current stage of development, China gives priority to eco-environmental conservation and pursues green development. It seeks growth while protecting the environment, and believes that a sound eco-environment better facilitates growth. It focuses on supply-side structural reform in the energy sector – giving priority to non-fossil energy, promoting the clean and efficient development and utilization of fossil energy, improving the energy storage, transportation and peak-shaving system, and developing coordinated, complementary, and diverse energy sources in different regions.

1. Prioritizing Non-Fossil Energy

The development and utilization of non-fossil energy is a major element of transitioning to a low-carbon and eco-friendly energy system. China gives priority to non-fossil energy, and strives to substitute low-carbon for high-carbon energy and renewable for fossil energy.

Facilitating the use of solar energy. In line with the principles of driving technological progress, reducing costs, expanding the market and improving the system, China is promoting the use of solar energy in an all-round way. It makes overall planning of geographical layout of solar PV generation bases and market accommodation, with emphasis on both centralized and decentralized power generation. It has implemented a “leader board” incentive to encourage solar PV power generation, and allowed projects to be allocated through market competition, so as to accelerate progress in relevant technologies and reduce costs. As a result, China’s solar PV industry has become internationally competitive. The country is improving grid access and other services for decentralized solar PV power generation, and coordinating the development of solar PV power, agriculture, animal husbandry, and desertification control to form a diversified model of solar PV power generation. China is also industrializing solar thermal power generation through demonstration projects, and providing market support for related industrial chains. It has expanded the market for and utilization of solar thermal energy, and introduced centralized hot water projects in industry, commerce and public services to pilot solar heating.

Developing wind power. On the basis of balancing wind power development with power transmission and accommodation, China is taking steps to exploit wind power and building large-scale wind power bases. Based on the principles of overall planning and coordination, and efficient utilization and development of centralized and decentralized wind power both onshore and offshore, it is taking active measures to develop decentralized wind energy in the middle and eastern parts of the country, and offshore wind farms. It gives priority to wind power projects that deliver electricity at affordable prices, and encourages project allocation through market-oriented competition. China also promotes wind power production through large-scale development and utilization of wind power, which helps to boost industry innovation and international competitiveness, and improve  the industrial service system.

Developing green hydropower. China considers eco-environmental conservation to be a priority and pursues green development. While protecting the eco-environment and relocating the residents, China develops hydropower in a rational and orderly way, giving equal importance to development and conservation, and emphasizing on both the construction and consequent management of the facilities. Focusing on major rivers in the southwest, China is building large hydropower bases and controlling the construction of small and medium-sized hydropower stations in the basin areas. China seeks the green development of small hydropower stations, and has increased investment in river ecology restoration. It is also improving policies for relocated residents to share the benefits from hydropower projects, thus giving a boost to local economic and social development and helping the relocated population get out of poverty. As in any resource development program, the goals are always set for a better economy, better environment, and better benefits for the people.

Developing safe and structured nuclear power. Nuclear security is the lifeline in developing nuclear power. China attaches equal importance to safety and the orderly development of nuclear power. It has strengthened whole-life management and supervision of nuclear power planning, site selection, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning, and adopted the most advanced technologies and strictest standards for the nuclear power industry. China is improving the multilevel system of regulations and standards on nuclear energy and safety and strengthening relevant emergency plans, legal system, institutions and mechanisms, in its effort to establish a national emergency system that effectively responds to nuclear accidents. China has strengthened nuclear security and nuclear material control, rigorously fulfilling its international obligations towards nuclear security and non-proliferation, and keeping a good nuclear security record. So far, the nuclear power units in operation are generally safe, and there have been no incidents or accidents of level 2 or above on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale.

Developing biomass, geothermal and ocean energy in accordance with local conditions. China is adopting advanced technologies that meet environmental protection standards to generate power by means of urban solid waste incineration, and upgrading biomass power generation to cogeneration of heat and power. It is growing biogas into an industry and transforming methane use in rural areas. In industrializing liquid bio-fuel production by means of non-food biomass, it avoids using crops as raw materials and occupying arable land, strictly controls the expansion of fuel ethanol processing capacity, and focuses on improving the quality of biodiesel products. China is engaged in innovative geothermal power generation, providing urban central heating, and building demonstration zones for efficient production and utilization. It is also reinforcing R&D and pilot demonstrations on harnessing ocean power such as tidal and wave energy.

Increasing the overall utilization rate of renewable energy. China guarantees full acquisition of all renewable energy generated. It has implemented a clean energy accommodation action plan and is adopting various measures to promote the use of clean energy. It is improving the overall planning of the power sector, optimizing the power supply structure and layout, and allowing the market to function as a regulator, to form institutional mechanisms conducive to the use of renewable energy and make the power system more flexible and better at coordinating energy use.

China has put in place a mechanism for accommodating power generated from renewable energy, which determines on an annual basis the minimum proportion of renewable energy to be consumed in each province and equivalent administrative unit, and requires suppliers and users to work together to achieve this goal. The country uses the power grid as a platform for optimizing resource allocation. It facilitates optimal interaction and coordination of power source-grid-load-storage, and improves the appraisal and supervision of different sectors in accommodating power generated from renewable energy. Renewable energy use rate has increased significantly: In 2019 the national average consumption rate of wind power was 96 percent, that of solar PV power was 98 percent, and that of water energy in major river basins reached 96 percent.

2. Promoting Clean and Efficient Development and Utilization of Fossil Energy

China coordinates the development and utilization of fossil energy and eco-environmental protection in accordance with its resource endowment and the bearing capacity of natural resources and the environment. It promotes advanced production capacity while phasing out outdated capacity. It also promotes the clean and efficient utilization of coal and the exploration and development of oil and gas, and works to increase reserves and production, so as to be more self-sufficient in oil and gas.

Facilitating the safe, smart and green utilization of coal. China strives to build an intensive, safe, efficient and clean coal industry. It is furthering supply-side structural reform in the industry, improving the coal production capacity replacement policy, speeding up the decommissioning of outdated production facilities, and releasing high-quality capacity in an orderly manner. As a result, the configuration and production capacity of the coal mining sector have seen notable improvement, and large modern coalmines have become the mainstay. From 2016 to 2019, China cut more than 900 million tons of outdated coal production capacity per year on average. It has also increased input in production safety, and improved the mechanism to ensure workplace safety in the long run. Coalmines are becoming highly automated and intelligent by employing more machines and applying information technology, which also make them safer and more efficient. China promotes green mining at large coal bases and facilitates their green transformation by applying coal washing and processing technology, building  a circular economy in mining areas and protecting the eco-environment. A number of green mines have been built with improved utilization of various resources in an all-round way. China has taken action to promote the clean and efficient utilization of coal, and increased the quota of coal consumption on power generation. Progress has also been made in coal-to-liquid (CTL) and coal-to-gas (CTG), the precision utilization of low-rank coals, and other industrialized demonstration projects of intensive coal processing.

Promoting the clean and efficient development of thermal power. China has been optimizing coal-fired power and upgrading technology to steadily reduce excess capacity. It has improved the early warning mechanism for risk control in coal-fired power planning and construction, and moved faster to phase out outdated capacity. By the end of 2019, China had phased out more than 100 million kW of outdated coal power capacity, and the ratio of coal-fired power in total power generation had dropped from 65.7 percent in 2012 to 52 percent in 2019. China has taken action to upgrade coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions, and adopted stricter standards for energy efficiency and environmental protection. The efficiency and pollutants control levels of coal-fired power units are on par with world advanced levels. China has also begun to develop natural gas power where appropriate. It encourages adding peak-shaving natural gas power stations to power load centers to improve power security.

Increasing the production of natural gas. In order to increase domestic natural gas supply, China has strengthened basic geological surveying and resource evaluation, and stepped up scientific and technological innovation and industrial support for conventional natural gas production. It is also making breakthroughs in unconventional natural gas exploration and development, such as shale gas and coal-bed gas, and is working on large-scale shale gas exploitation. It is improving relevant policies for the exploitation and utilization of unconventional natural gas. Focusing on the Sichuan, Ordos and Tarim basins, it has built a number of natural gas production bases with an output of more than 10 billion cu m. Since 2017, natural gas output has been increasing by more than 10 billion cu m per year.

Raising the level of oil exploration, development and processing. China has strengthened domestic oil exploration and development, furthering related institutional reforms and promoting scientific and technological R&D and the application of new technologies. It has intensified the exploration and development of low-grade resources, and increased crude oil reserves and production. It has developed advanced oil recovery technologies, increased the recovery ratio of crude oil, and ensured steady output at old oilfields in the east, including the Songliao and Bohai Bay basins. Focusing on the Xinjiang region and the Ordos Basin, it has increased the reserves and production of new oilfields in the west of the country. It has also strengthened offshore oil and gas exploration and development in the Bohai Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea, and are advancing deep-sea cooperation with other countries. The output of offshore oilfields was about 40 million tons in 2019. China is also transforming and upgrading its oil refining industry to produce better refined oil products and improved fuel quality, which will reduce exhaust gas pollution of vehicles.

3. Improving the Energy Storage, Transportation and Peak-Shaving System

China coordinates the transportation of various energy resources such as coal, electricity, oil, and gas. It has built interconnected transmission and distribution networks and established a stable and reliable energy storage, transportation and peak-shaving system, to enhance its emergency response.

Strengthening energy transmission and distribution networks. China has been building cross-provincial and cross-regional key energy transmission channels, to connect major energy producing and consumption regions, and promote the complementary and coordinated development between regions. It has improved the capacity of existing railway lines for transporting coal, and seen that more coal is transported by rail with higher efficiency. It has enhanced the connectivity between main natural gas pipelines and provincial pipelines, liquefied natural gas receiving terminals, and gas storages, and is building a unified national network. A natural gas transportation system that is flexible, safe and reliable has taken shape. China has steadily built trans-provincial and trans-regional power transmission channels, and expanded the scope of clean energy allocation in the northwest, north, northeast and southwest. It has improved the main framework of the regional power grid and strengthened internal grid building at the provincial level. It has also carried out flexible HVDC pilot projects, and is working on the Internet of Energy (IoE) and a multilevel power system that is safe, reliable, and of a reasonable size.

Improving energy reserves for emergency response. China has integrated state, corporate, strategic and commercial reserves to achieve higher reserves for oil, natural gas and coal. It has improved the national oil reserve system and accelerated the construction of oil reserve bases. It has set up a multilevel natural gas storage and peak-shaving system, with local governments, gas suppliers, pipeline transportation enterprises and urban gas services fulfilling their respective responsibilities. It has also put in place a coal reserve system with enterprises playing the main part out of their social responsibility and local governments playing a supporting role. China has improved the national emergency mechanism for large-scale power outages, made power supply more reliable, and enhanced its emergency response. It has established a guarantee system for energy transmission and distribution that matches its energy reserve capacity, a standardized system for oil procurement, storage, replacement and use, and a supervisory mechanism for implementation.

Enhancing the energy peak-shaving system. China attaches equal importance to the supply side and the demand side. It strives to increase the peak-shaving capacity with sound market mechanism and strong technological support, so as to use the energy system in an efficient and allround way. It has accelerated the construction of pumped-storage power stations, built natural gas peak-shaving power stations as appropriate, and implemented power flexibility transformation projects in existing coal-fired CHP cogeneration units and coal-fired power generating units, so as to improve the peak-shaving performance of the power system, and promote clean energy accommodation. It is optimizing energy storage, power generation from new energy sources and the operation of the power system, and carrying out electrochemical energy storage and other peak-shaving pilot projects. It has promoted the construction of facilities for natural gas storage and peak shaving, improved the market-oriented mechanism of auxiliary services, and enhanced the peak-shaving capacity of natural gas. China has also improved its policies on electricity and gas prices to guide power and natural gas users to participate in peak shaving and peak shifting, so as to enhance the response on the demand side. It has improved the system for interrupting or adjusting electricity and natural gas load to tap the demand-side potential.

4. Supporting Energy Development in Rural and Poor Areas

China has implemented the strategy of rural revitalization to improve energy security in rural areas, so that the residents can have a better sense of gain, happiness and security.

Improving rural energy infrastructure. Making electricity accessible to all is a basic condition for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China implemented a three-year action plan to ensure power access for people without electricity, and had achieved this goal by the end of 2015. China attaches great importance to the renovation and upgrading of the rural power grid and makes great efforts to strengthen the weak links in the process. It has carried out targeted programs for renovating and upgrading power grid in small towns and central villages , connecting motor-pumped wells in rural plain areas to the grid, and supplying poor villages with electricity for industrial and commercial use. Since 2018, it has been focusing on upgrading the power grid in severely impoverished areas and border villages. China has built natural gas branch pipelines and infrastructure to expand the coverage of the pipeline network. To improve energy infrastructure in rural areas, it has built supply outlets for liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in areas not covered by natural gas pipelines, and developed renewable energy sources adapted to local conditions.

Carrying out targeted poverty alleviation through energy projects. Energy is a driving force for economic development, and also an important impetus for poverty alleviation. China makes sound plans for the exploitation of energy resources in poor areas, introducing major energy projects in these areas to improve their capability to sustain themselves, thus adding new momentum to the local economy. It has given priority to energy development projects in old revolutionary bases, ethnic minority areas, border areas and poor areas, and built power transmission bases for sending surplus clean electricity to other parts of China, contributing significantly to local economic growth. In developing hydropower, China has followed a sustainable development path by ensuring smooth relocation and resettlement of residents, and by making sure those involved have the means to better themselves, so that the poor share more of the benefits of resource development. China has also increased financial input and policy support for clean energy such as biomass, wind power, solar power, and small hydropower stations in poverty-stricken areas. It has adopted various models integrating solar PV power and agriculture to reduce poverty, and built thousands of “sunshine banks” in poor rural areas.

The central village is a rural community composed of a number of administrative villages with a certain population size and relatively complete public facilities.

Using clean energy for heating in rural areas in north China. Winter heating is of great importance in northern China. To ensure that the residents stay warm in winter while reducing air pollution, China has launched clean heating programs in rural areas in accordance with local conditions. In this new scheme enterprises assume the main responsibility and governments provide support to ensure affordable heating for the people. China has been steadily replacing coal with electricity and natural gas for centralized heating, and supported the application of clean biomass fuel, geothermal energy and solar energy in heating, as well as the use of heat pumps. At the end of 2019, the rate of clean-energy heating in the rural areas of north China was about 31 percent, up 21.6 percentage points from 2016. By 2019 about 23 million households in rural areas in northern China had replaced bulk coal with clean energy, including 18 million households in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, its surrounding areas and the Fenhe-Weihe River Plain.

V. Leveraging the Role of Innovation as the Primary Driver of Development

China has seized the opportunities presented by the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation. In the energy sector, it has implemented a strategy of innovation-driven development to increase its capacity for scientific and technological innovation and address major issues and challenges, such as energy resource constraints, environmental protection, and climate change, through advances in technology.

1. Improving Top Level Design for Energy Policies Relating to Scientific and Technological Innovation

China has made energy a vital part of its innovation-driven development strategy, and given more prominence to innovation in energy science and technology. Modern energy technology that is safe, clean and of high efficiency is a key strategic sector and a national priority in the country’s “Outline of Innovation-driven Development Strategy”. Accordingly China has drawn blueprints for sci-tech innovation in energy and resources, made strategic plans for scientific and technological development of the resources and energy industry till 2035, and proposed major measures and tasks for innovation in energy science and technology. These are all aimed to enhance the role of scientific and technological innovation in driving and underpinning the energy sector.

By making plans for technological innovation in energy and creating the “Innovation Action Plan of Energy Technological Revolution (2016-2030)”, China has charted the roadmap and identified its priorities. Through deeper reform, China is establishing an energy science and technology system in which technological innovation is directed by the government and led by the market, and engages the whole of society, with enterprises playing a major role and all stakeholders coordinating with each other. At the same time China has increased investment in scientific and technological innovation in key energy fields and emerging energy industries, stepped up efforts to cultivate professionals in these areas, and endeavored to help all entities involved to improve their capacity for innovation. 

2. Creating Diversified Platforms for Technological Innovation in Energy at Various Levels

On the strength of leading enterprises, research institutions and universities, China has created a number of high-standard platforms for technological innovation, and inspired enthusiasm for innovation among all parties involved. Amid efforts to promote scientific and technological advances in energy, China has established more than 40 key national laboratories and a group of national engineering research centers that focus on research into technologies for safe, green and intelligent coal mining, highly efficient use of renewable energy, energy storage, and decentralized energy systems. It has also built more than 80 national energy R&D centers and key national energy laboratories for research in the key areas of coal, oil, natural gas, coal-fired power, nuclear power, renewable energy and energy equipment, all of which cover the vital and frontier areas of energy innovation. Adapting to their own needs and the needs of the industry, large energy enterprises have made continuous efforts to build up their scientific and technological capacity, and have established some influential research institutions in their respective fields. In keeping with the industrial strengths of their regions, local governments have adopted various measures to expand their scientific and technological capacity. Encouraged by the policy of “public entrepreneurship and public innovation”, all entities in Chinese society are actively engaged in scientific and technological innovation, and a large number of new energy technology businesses have been established.

3. Promoting Coordinated Scientific and Technological Innovation in Key Realms of the Energy Sector

China has implemented major scientific and technological initiatives and projects to achieve leapfrog development in key energy technologies. Focusing on its strategic industrial goals, China has rolled out a project on oil and gas technology whose emphasis is making breakthroughs in petroleum geology theory and key technologies for high-efficiency exploration and exploitation, as well as finding technology solutions to low-cost, high-efficiency exploitation of unconventional sources of energy, including shale oil, shale gas and gas hydrates. China has launched a project in nuclear power technology to advance research on core technologies of a third-generation pressurized water reactor and a fourth-generation high-temperature gas cooled reactor. The goal is to boost the country’s independent innovation in nuclear power technology. In the field of key generic technologies, China has planned for and carried out research into new energy vehicles, smart grid, smart coal mining, clean and efficient use of coal and new energy-saving technology, renewable energy and hydrogen energy, among others. To achieve its major strategic goals, China has given priority to research in basic physics and chemistry concerning clean and efficient use and conversion of energy, in the hope that advances in basic research will lead to breakthroughs in applied technologies.

4. Launching Major Energy Projects to Upgrade Energy Technologies and Equipment

In a global trend of transition to green and low-carbon development in the energy sector, China has accelerated the upgrading of conventional energy technologies and equipment, and is replacing them with new ones at a faster pace. It has redoubled efforts to make independent innovations in emerging energy technologies, and achieved a marked improvement in clean, low-carbon energy technologies. By launching major equipment manufacturing projects and major demonstration projects, China has made breakthroughs in the trials, demonstration, application and popularization of key energy technologies. It has improved the measurement, standard setting, testing, and certification systems of energy equipment, and built up its capacity to research, develop, design and manufacture complete sets of important energy equipment.

To achieve secure energy supply, develop clean energy, and encourage the clean, efficient use of fossil fuels, China concentrates on making breakthroughs in key technologies in energy equipment manufacturing, solving bottleneck issues involving materials and accessories, and promoting technological innovation along the whole industrial chain. China has launched major demonstration projects for advanced energy technologies and equipment in such fields as clean and intelligent coal mining, washing and selection, the exploration and exploitation of deep-water and unconventional oil and gas resources, oil and gas storage and transport, clean and efficient coal-fired power generation, advanced nuclear power technologies, power generation from renewable sources, gas turbine, energy storage, advanced power grid, and deep processing of coal.

5. Supporting the Development of New Technologies and New Business Forms and Models

The world now stands at the confluence of a new round of technological revolution and an industrial revolution. New technological breakthroughs have accelerated industrial transformation, giving rise to waves of new business forms and models in the energy sector. China has made strenuous efforts to integrate energy technologies with modern and advanced information, material and manufacturing technologies, and has rolled out the “Internet +” intelligent energy program to explore new models of energy production and consumption. It has stepped up efforts to innovate and upgrade intelligent solar PV power generation, integrate the development of solar PV power generation with agriculture, fishery, animal husbandry and construction, and open new space for the complimentary application of solar PV power generation, creating new models in the utilization of new energy.

China has picked up its pace in developing industrial chains in the production, storage, transport and application of green hydrogen, hydrogen-fuel cells, and hydrogen-powered vehicles. It supports the application of energy storage technologies at multiple points in energy production and utilization, and the complementary development of energy storage and renewable energy. By supporting the construction of micro-grids for new energy, China has established regional systems of clean energy supply that integrate power generation, storage and utilization. It promotes new comprehensive energy services and strives for complementary, coordinated and efficient end use of various forms of energy. With pilot and demonstration projects leading the way, a series of new energy technologies and new business forms and models have emerged, triggering a fusion of innovative development in China’s energy sector.

VI. Deeper Reform of the Energy System in All Areas

China will fully leverage the decisive role of the market in allocating energy resources, and ensure the government better play its part in this regard. It will extend market-oriented reform in key areas and on vital issues to remove institutional barriers, solve the problem of an incomplete market system, provide strong institutional guarantees for China’s energy security and boost the high-quality development of the energy sector.

1. Creating an Energy Market with Effective Competition

China is working hard to cultivate a variety of market entities, break up monopolies, ease market access, and encourage competition. It is building an energy market system that is unified, open, competitive and yet orderly, removing market barriers, and making the allocation of energy resources more efficient and fairer. 

Diversifying market entities. China supports a variety of market entities to operate in segments of the energy sector that are not on the entry negative list, in accordance with the law and on equal footing. China has extended systemic reform of oil and gas exploration and exploitation and opened up the market in this regard. It has implemented competitive trading of oil and gas exploration blocks, and adopted a more rigorous exit mechanism for oil- and gas-bearing zones. China encourages qualified enterprises to import crude oil. It has reformed the oil and gas pipeline operation system to separate transport from sales. In an effort to reform electricity distribution, China is opening up electricity distribution and sales to non-government investment in an orderly manner, and is separating power grid enterprises’ secondary business from their core business. New market entities are being cultivated in the fields of electricity distribution and sales, energy storage, and comprehensive energy services. Meanwhile China is extending reform of energy SOEs, supporting development of the non-public sector, and conducting active yet prudent mixed-ownership reform in the energy industry to boost the vitality and motivation of energy enterprises.

Building an energy market system that is unified, open, and competitive yet orderly. China has established trading platforms for coal, electricity, petroleum and natural gas to facilitate interaction between demand and supply. A modern coal market system is under construction. Futures trading of thermal coal, coking coal and crude oil and spot trading of natural gas are under way. Restrictions have been lifted on the generation and consumption of electricity by commercial consumers. An electricity market is under way to incorporate medium- and long-term trading, spot trading and other forms of trading of electricity. China is also working to build a unified electricity market across the country and a national carbon emissions trading market.

2. Improving the Market-Based Mechanism for Deciding Energy Prices

Following the principle of “allowing for more competition in electricity generation, sales and consumption while tightening government regulation of power grid, transmission and distribution”, China has lifted price control over competitive areas and links. The goal is to allow prices to reflect market demand, and thereby guide the allocation of resources. It has also conducted strict government oversight of the determination of pricing to cover reasonable costs.

Lifting price control over competitive links in an orderly manner. China is steadily fostering a market-based pricing mechanism of commercial electricity generation and distribution, and allowing prices to be decided by electricity users, sellers and producers through market-based modalities. China has extended reform of the price-setting mechanism for on-grid electricity from coal-fired power plants, and introduced a market-based pricing mechanism in which electricity prices may fluctuate above or below the benchmark. Steady progress has been made in determining the price of on-grid electricity from new wind and solar PV power plants through competitive bidding. Relevant parties are encouraged to negotiate on the basis of sharing risks and benefits, and set through market-based modalities the price for trans-provincial or trans-regional transmission of electricity. The pricing mechanism for oil products is being improved. Reform is ongoing in having the market determine gas prices. China has enforced progressive pricing for household consumption of electricity and gas across the nation, ensuring basic living needs are met while encouraging conservation.

Appropriately deciding prices for natural monopoly operations. Allowing recovery of costs plus reasonable profits, China has set appropriate transmission and distribution prices for power grids and gas pipelines. It has analyzed costs and verified prices for electricity transmission and distribution over two regulatory periods. China has also stepped up the price regulation of gas transmission and distribution and analyzed gas costs in order to establish a price regulation system that covers the whole process of gas transmission and distribution.

3. Innovative Management of the Energy Sector and Improved Government Services

Working to become a service-oriented government, the Chinese government has further transformed its functions, streamlined administration, delegated powers, improved regulation and upgraded services. It employs strategic plans and macro-policies on energy, and mobilizes resources for major undertakings. Better oversight and regulation of the energy market will deliver better results and promote fair competition among all market entities. Putting people and lives above everything else, China has remained firm in its commitment to safe production in the energy industry.

Igniting the vitality of market entities. China has extended reform in the energy sector to delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services. This includes reducing approval by the central government for energy projects and delegating the approval power to local authorities for some projects. The requirement for government review and approval has been rescinded for energy projects about which market entities can decide at their own discretion. The number of items of preliminary review has been slashed and the threshold for market access has been lowered, while supervision during and after production has been enhanced and standardized. “Access to electricity” services have been improved. As a result the time, procedures and cost needed for businesses to connect to the power grid have all been cut down. In addition, China has promoted the “internet plus government services” model, and expanded the practice of providing all energy-related government services at one simple window in localities where all relevant authorities have outlets, thereby improving one-stop services.

Guiding the allocation of resources. In addition to other plans, including special plans and action plans, China has drawn up and implemented the “Strategy for Energy Production and Consumption Revolution (2016-2030)” for developing the energy sector. These define the overall goals and key tasks, and guide investment in the sector. In order to encourage market entities to appropriately explore and utilize energy resources, China has refined its fiscal, taxation, industrial, financing, and investment policies, implemented a nationwide ad valorem tax on crude oil, natural gas and coal, and raised excise tax on oil products. It is building a green finance incentive system to promote new energy vehicles and develop clean energy. China also encourages Renminbi settlement for trading in bulk energy commodities. 

Promoting fair competition. China has overhauled the government’s regulatory power and responsibilities, and gradually transformed regulation of the electricity sector to comprehensive regulation of the entire energy sector. It has tightened regulation of electricity transaction, distribution and supply, the market order, equitable connection to the power grid, and grid investment, cost and efficiency. China has also reinforced oversight of the opening of oil and gas pipeline facilities to all eligible users, increased information transparency of pipeline operators, and increased the utilization rate of these facilities. Random inspection by randomly selected staff and prompt release of inspection results have been expanded to the whole energy sector. Efforts have been intensified to establish a credit system in the energy industry, created in accordance with law lists of entities that have committed serious acts of bad faith, and to take joint punitive action against such acts, hence increasing the effectiveness of credit regulation. China exercises prudential regulation of new business forms to develop new drivers of growth. It also keeps energy hotlines open to ensure oversight by the public. 

Ensuring production safety. China has improved the accountability system for coal mine safety, raised the efficiency of coal mine supervision,regulation and law enforcement, created a standardized management system for coal mine safety, and built up its capacity for disaster prevention and control. As a result coal mine safety has much improved. Enterprises share the main responsibility for power safety, industry regulators share the regulatory responsibility, and local authorities have the overall responsibility for safety in their respective jurisdictions. Oversight and management have been improved to ensure cybersecurity of the electricity system, as well as the safety and quality of electricity construction projects. Safety risks in the supply of electricity are manageable in general, and there has been no instance of extensive blackout. Meanwhile, through stronger safety regulation of the entire oil and gas industrial chain, China has maintained safety in oil and gas production. Thanks to sustained efforts to improve its system and capacity for nuclear safety regulation, China’s nuclear power plants and research reactors are generally safe and secure, and the quality of nuclear projects under construction is well controlled as a whole. 

4. Improving the Rule of Law in the Energy Sector

Implementation of the rule of law is essential in the energy sector. It stabilizes expectations and creates long-term benefits. China aligns law making with reform and development in the energy industry, and has amended or abolished laws and regulations incompatible with the needs of reform and development in the sector. China adheres to the principle that administrative bodies must fulfill their statutory obligations and must not take any action that is not mandated by law, and sees that the government fully performs its functions in accordance with the law.

Improving the system of energy laws. More laws and administrative regulations concerning the energy sector have been formulated or amended. Supervision and inspection of the enforcement of energy laws and regulations has been intensified. The work to enact, amend or repeal regulations and normative documents in the fields of electricity, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power and new energy has been accelerated, in order to incorporate reform results into China’s laws, regulations and major policies. 

Improving law-based governance of the energy sector. China is working to ensure law-based governance and see that the rule of law materializes in the entire process of making, enforcing, overseeing and managing energy strategies, plans, policies and standards. To raise awareness of the law, it is developing a new paradigm that features interaction and mutual support between the government and enterprises, which will help create an enabling environment across the nation for respecting, studying and observing the law. China has adopted new practices in administrative law enforcement by introducing a nationwide system for disclosing information on administrative law enforcement, a system for recording the entire enforcement process, a system for reviewing the legality of major enforcement decisions, and an accountability system. China will ensure that the channels for applying administrative reconsideration and filing administrative lawsuits remain open, that cases are handled in accordance with laws and regulations, that the legitimate rights and interests of administrative counterparts are protected in accordance with the law, and that people can see in every case that justice has been served.

VII. Strengthening International Energy Cooperation Across the Board

China bases international cooperation on the principle of mutual benefit and win-win results while embracing the concept of green development. It is endeavoring to ensure energy security in an open environment, open its energy sector wider to the world, promote high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, actively engage in global energy governance, guide global cooperation in climate change, and build a global community of shared future.

1. Opening the Energy Sector Further to the World

China is committed to a stable global energy market and is opening its energy sector wider to the world. It has greatly eased market access for foreign investment, and has built a market-based international business environment that respects the rule of law to facilitate free trade and investment. It has adopted pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list, reducing restrictions on access to the energy sector for foreign investment. It has lifted the restrictions for foreign investment to enter the sectors of coal, oil, gas, electric power (excluding nuclear power), and new energy. It is promoting the energy industry in pilot free trade zones such as Guangdong, Hubei, Chongqing and Hainan, and supports further opening up of the entire oil and gas industry in the China (Zhejiang) Pilot Free Trade Zone. International energy companies such as ExxonMobil, GE, BP, EDF and SIEMENS are steadily expanding investment in China. Major foreign investment projects such as Tesla’s Shanghai plant are well under way. Foreign-funded gas stations are spreading.

2. Promoting Energy Cooperation Among BRI Countries

China follows the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and pursues open, green and clean governance in its energy cooperation with BRI countries towards high-standard, people-centered and sustainable goals. It attempts to bring benefits to more countries and their people while maintaining its own development trajectory, and to create conditions favorable to further common development.

Pragmatic and mutually beneficial energy cooperation. China engages in extensive cooperation with over 100 countries and regions around the world in terms of energy trade, investment, industrial capacity, equipment, technology, and standard setting. The high standards of Chinese enterprises are much sought after by partner countries for their energy projects, which help to turn local resource advantages into development strengths. They will also drive technical progress in these countries, create more jobs, stimulate the economy, and improve people’s lives. In this way China and its BRI partners will grow together by leveraging and incorporating their respective strengths. China builds cooperation with countries and large transnational corporations in the field of clean energy through third-party markets, to create an energy cooperation framework which is open, transparent, inclusive, and mutually beneficial. In 2019, China established Belt and Road energy partnerships with 30 countries.

A silk road with green energy. China is the largest renewable energy market and the largest clean energy equipment manufacturer in the world. It is actively working towards green and low-carbon global energy transition by engaging in extensive cooperation in renewable energy. Its efforts can be seen in cooperation projects such as the Kaleta hydropower project in Guinea, the Kaposvar PV power station project in Hungary, the Mozura wind park project in Montenegro, Noor Energy 1 – the  CSP+PV solar power project in Dubai of the UAE, the Karot hydropower project and the first phase of the solar PV power project in the Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park in Pakistan. The wide application of renewable energy technologies in the Chinese market is helping to reduce the cost of renewable energy across the globe and accelerate the green transition process.

Greater energy infrastructure connectivity. China is promoting transnational and cross-regional energy infrastructure connectivity, creating conditions for complementary cooperation and reciprocal trade in energy resources. A batch of landmark energy projects such as the China-Russia, China-Central Asia and China-Myanmar oil and gas pipelines have been completed and brought into operation. China has now connected its grid with the power grids of seven neighboring countries, giving a strong boost to energy infrastructure connectivity and realizing optimal allocation of energy resources on a larger scale, which facilitates economic cooperation within the region.

Wider global energy access. China actively implements the UN sustainable development goal of ensuring “access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”. It also takes an active part in global cooperation on expanding energy access. To improve energy access in partner countries and benefit ordinary people, China has employed multiple financing methods to develop electric power projects using grid-connected, microgrid, or off-grid solar systems according to local conditions, and donated clean cooking stoves to regions still using traditional cooking fuels.

3. Actively Participating in Global Energy Governance

As a staunch supporter of multilateralism, China builds bilateral and multilateral energy cooperation based on mutual benefit and win-win results. It supports the role of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and relevant cooperation mechanisms in global energy governance, promotes global energy market stability and supply security, and the green energy transition within the framework of international multilateral cooperation, and contributes ideas and solutions to the sustainable development of global energy.

Engagement in multilateral energy governance. China is an active participant in international energy cooperation under multilateral mechanisms such as the UN, G20, APEC and BRICS. It is making positive progress in joint research, releasing reports and founding agencies. China has set up intergovernmental energy cooperation mechanisms with over 90 countries and regions, and established ties with over 30 international organizations and multilateral mechanisms in the energy sector. Since 2012, China has become a member state of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), an observer country to the Energy Charter Treaty, and an affiliate of the IEA.

A facilitator in regional energy cooperation. China has built regional energy cooperation platforms with ASEAN, the League of Arab States, African Union, and Central and Eastern Europe, and organized forums on clean energy at the East Asia Summit. It has also facilitated capacity building and cooperation on technological innovation and provided training for 18 countries in clean energy use and energy efficiency.

4. Joining Forces to Tackle Global Climate Change

Embracing the vision of a global community of shared future, China works together with other countries to address global climate change and promote the transition to green and low-carbon energy.

Strengthening international cooperation on climate change. With support from the UN, World Bank, Global Environment Facility, Asian Development Bank, and countries such as Germany, China is focusing on green and low-carbon energy transition and developing extensive and sustainable bilateral and multilateral cooperation with other countries in exploiting renewable energy and showcasing pilot low-carbon cities through experience sharing, technical exchanges, and project dovetailing.

Supporting capacity building in developing countries to address climate change. China is committed to deeper South-South climate cooperation. It provides support to the least developed countries, small island countries, African countries and other developing countries in their response to climate change. Since 2016, China has set up 10 pilot low-carbon industrial parks, launched 100 mitigation and adaptation programs, and provided 1,000 training opportunities on climate change cooperation in developing countries to help them develop clean and low-carbon energy and jointly address global climate change.

5. China’s Proposals for Developing Synergy on Sustainable Global Energy Development

Humanity has entered an era of connectivity when maintaining energy security and addressing global climate change have become major challenges confronting the whole world. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic highlights all the more the interdependent interests of all countries and the interconnection of all peoples. China proposes that the international community should work together on the sustainable development of global energy, address the challenges of climate change, and build a cleaner and more beautiful world.

Jointly promoting the transition to green and low-carbon energy to build a cleaner and more beautiful world. It requires the joint effort of all countries to address the challenge of climate change and improve the global eco-environment. All countries should choose the green development path, adopt green, low-carbon and sustainable working practices and lifestyles, promote energy transition, and address problems relating to energy. We should join forces to tackle global climate change and make our contribution to building a cleaner and more beautiful world.

Jointly consolidating multilateral energy cooperation to accelerate the green economic recovery and growth. We should improve international governance and maintain an open, inclusive, balanced and reciprocal multilateral framework for international energy cooperation. We should expand communication and pragmatic cooperation in the energy sector to promote economic recovery and integrated development. We should strengthen transnational and cross-regional innovation on clean-energy and low-carbon technologies, and cooperation on technology standards, to promote energy technology transfer and rollout and improve international IPR protection.

Jointly facilitating international investment in energy trading to protect global market stability. We should eliminate energy trade and investment barriers, facilitate trade and investment, cooperate on energy resources and industrial capacity as well as infrastructure, improve connectivity, and promote efficient resource allocation and greater market integration. We should embrace the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, seek the greatest common ground to promote the sustainable development of global energy, and jointly maintain global energy security.

Jointly improving energy access in underdeveloped areas to address energy poverty. We should join forces to realize the sustainable goal in the energy sector, and ensure access to basic energy services such as electricity for people in need in underdeveloped countries and regions. We should help underdeveloped countries and regions to popularize advanced green energy technologies, train energy professionals and improve energy services to integrate the efforts on green energy development and the elimination of energy poverty.

Conclusion

China is embarking on a new journey towards a modern socialist country in all respects. In this new development stage, it will remain committed to an energy revolution, and move faster to build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, to lay a solid foundation for basically achieving socialist modernization in 2035 and becoming a great modern socialist country by the middle of the 21st century.

The world today is experiencing a scale of change unseen in a century. The eco-environment has a direct bearing on human existence and its sustained development. Countries of the world need to work in solidarity to cope with the challenge. China will embrace the vision of a global community of shared future, work together with all countries to expand cooperation on global energy governance, promote the sustainable development of global energy, and protect global energy security. This is part of our commitment to realizing more inclusive, balanced and equal development for all, and to building a clean, beautiful, prosperous and habitable world.

新时代的中国能源发展

(2020年12月)

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

  目录

  前言

  一、走新时代能源高质量发展之路

  (一)能源安全新战略

  (二)新时代能源政策理念

  二、能源发展取得历史性成就

  (一)能源供应保障能力不断增强

  (二)能源节约和消费结构优化成效显著

  (三)能源科技水平快速提升

  (四)能源与生态环境友好性明显改善

  (五)能源治理机制持续完善

  (六)能源惠民利民成果丰硕

  三、全面推进能源消费方式变革

  (一)实行能耗双控制度

  (二)健全节能法律法规和标准体系

  (三)完善节能低碳激励政策

  (四)提升重点领域能效水平

  (五)推动终端用能清洁化

  四、建设多元清洁的能源供应体系

  (一)优先发展非化石能源

  (二)清洁高效开发利用化石能源

  (三)加强能源储运调峰体系建设

  (四)支持农村及贫困地区能源发展

  五、发挥科技创新第一动力作用

  (一)完善能源科技创新政策顶层设计

  (二)建设多元化多层次能源科技创新平台

  (三)开展能源重大领域协同科技创新

  (四)依托重大能源工程提升能源技术装备水平

  (五)支持新技术新模式新业态发展

  六、全面深化能源体制改革

  (一)构建有效竞争的能源市场

  (二)完善主要由市场决定能源价格的机制

  (三)创新能源科学管理和优化服务

  (四)健全能源法治体系

  七、全方位加强能源国际合作

  (一)持续深化能源领域对外开放

  (二)着力推进共建“一带一路”能源合作

  (三)积极参与全球能源治理

  (四)携手应对全球气候变化

  (五)共同促进全球能源可持续发展的中国主张

  结束语

  前言

  能源是人类文明进步的基础和动力,攸关国计民生和国家安全,关系人类生存和发展,对于促进经济社会发展、增进人民福祉至关重要。

  新中国成立以来,在中国共产党领导下,中国自力更生、艰苦奋斗,逐步建成较为完备的能源工业体系。改革开放以来,中国适应经济社会快速发展需要,推进能源全面、协调、可持续发展,成为世界上最大的能源生产消费国和能源利用效率提升最快的国家。

  中共十八大以来,中国发展进入新时代,中国的能源发展也进入新时代。习近平主席提出“四个革命、一个合作”能源安全新战略,为新时代中国能源发展指明了方向,开辟了中国特色能源发展新道路。中国坚持创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,以推动高质量发展为主题,以深化供给侧结构性改革为主线,全面推进能源消费方式变革,构建多元清洁的能源供应体系,实施创新驱动发展战略,不断深化能源体制改革,持续推进能源领域国际合作,中国能源进入高质量发展新阶段。

  生态兴则文明兴。面对气候变化、环境风险挑战、能源资源约束等日益严峻的全球问题,中国树立人类命运共同体理念,促进经济社会发展全面绿色转型,在努力推动本国能源清洁低碳发展的同时,积极参与全球能源治理,与各国一道寻求加快推进全球能源可持续发展新道路。习近平主席在第七十五届联合国大会一般性辩论上宣布,中国将提高国家自主贡献力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。新时代中国的能源发展,为中国经济社会持续健康发展提供有力支撑,也为维护世界能源安全、应对全球气候变化、促进世界经济增长作出积极贡献。

  为介绍新时代中国能源发展成就,全面阐述中国推进能源革命的主要政策和重大举措,特发布本白皮书。

  一、走新时代能源高质量发展之路

  新时代的中国能源发展,积极适应国内国际形势的新发展新要求,坚定不移走高质量发展新道路,更好服务经济社会发展,更好服务美丽中国、健康中国建设,更好推动建设清洁美丽世界。

  (一)能源安全新战略

  新时代的中国能源发展,贯彻“四个革命、一个合作”能源安全新战略。

  ——推动能源消费革命,抑制不合理能源消费。坚持节能优先方针,完善能源消费总量管理,强化能耗强度控制,把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域。坚定调整产业结构,高度重视城镇化节能,推动形成绿色低碳交通运输体系。在全社会倡导勤俭节约的消费观,培育节约能源和使用绿色能源的生产生活方式,加快形成能源节约型社会。

  ——推动能源供给革命,建立多元供应体系。坚持绿色发展导向,大力推进化石能源清洁高效利用,优先发展可再生能源,安全有序发展核电,加快提升非化石能源在能源供应中的比重。大力提升油气勘探开发力度,推动油气增储上产。推进煤电油气产供储销体系建设,完善能源输送网络和储存设施,健全能源储运和调峰应急体系,不断提升能源供应的质量和安全保障能力。

  ——推动能源技术革命,带动产业升级。深入实施创新驱动发展战略,构建绿色能源技术创新体系,全面提升能源科技和装备水平。加强能源领域基础研究以及共性技术、颠覆性技术创新,强化原始创新和集成创新。着力推动数字化、大数据、人工智能技术与能源清洁高效开发利用技术的融合创新,大力发展智慧能源技术,把能源技术及其关联产业培育成带动产业升级的新增长点。

  ——推动能源体制革命,打通能源发展快车道。坚定不移推进能源领域市场化改革,还原能源商品属性,形成统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场。推进能源价格改革,形成主要由市场决定能源价格的机制。健全能源法治体系,创新能源科学管理模式,推进“放管服”改革,加强规划和政策引导,健全行业监管体系。

  ——全方位加强国际合作,实现开放条件下能源安全。坚持互利共赢、平等互惠原则,全面扩大开放,积极融入世界。推动共建“一带一路”能源绿色可持续发展,促进能源基础设施互联互通。积极参与全球能源治理,加强能源领域国际交流合作,畅通能源国际贸易、促进能源投资便利化,共同构建能源国际合作新格局,维护全球能源市场稳定和共同安全。

  (二)新时代能源政策理念

  ——坚持以人民为中心。牢固树立能源发展为了人民、依靠人民、服务人民的理念,把保障和改善民生用能、贫困人口用能作为能源发展的优先目标,加强能源民生基础设施和公共服务能力建设,提高能源普遍服务水平。把推动能源发展和脱贫攻坚有机结合,实施能源扶贫工程,发挥能源基础设施和能源供应服务在扶贫中的基础性作用。

  ——坚持清洁低碳导向。树立人与自然和谐共生理念,把清洁低碳作为能源发展的主导方向,推动能源绿色生产和消费,优化能源生产布局和消费结构,加快提高清洁能源和非化石能源消费比重,大幅降低二氧化碳排放强度和污染物排放水平,加快能源绿色低碳转型,建设美丽中国。

  ——坚持创新核心地位。把提升能源科技水平作为能源转型发展的突破口,加快能源科技自主创新步伐,加强国家能源战略科技力量,发挥企业技术创新主体作用,推进产学研深度融合,推动能源技术从引进跟随向自主创新转变,形成能源科技创新上下游联动的一体化创新和全产业链协同技术发展模式。

  ——坚持以改革促发展。充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,深入推进能源行业竞争性环节市场化改革,发挥市场机制作用,建设高标准能源市场体系。加强能源发展战略和规划的导向作用,健全能源法治体系和全行业监管体系,进一步完善支持能源绿色低碳转型的财税金融体制,释放能源发展活力,为能源高质量发展提供支撑。

  ——坚持推动构建人类命运共同体。面对日趋严峻的全球气候变化形势,树立人类命运共同体意识,深化全球能源治理合作,加快推动以清洁低碳为导向的新一轮能源变革,共同促进全球能源可持续发展,共建清洁美丽世界。

  二、能源发展取得历史性成就

  中国坚定不移推进能源革命,能源生产和利用方式发生重大变革,能源发展取得历史性成就。能源生产和消费结构不断优化,能源利用效率显著提高,生产生活用能条件明显改善,能源安全保障能力持续增强,为服务经济高质量发展、打赢脱贫攻坚战和全面建成小康社会提供了重要支撑。

  (一)能源供应保障能力不断增强

  基本形成了煤、油、气、电、核、新能源和可再生能源多轮驱动的能源生产体系。初步核算,2019年中国一次能源生产总量达39.7亿吨标准煤,为世界能源生产第一大国。煤炭仍是保障能源供应的基础能源,2012年以来原煤年产量保持在34.1亿-39.7亿吨。努力保持原油生产稳定,2012年以来原油年产量保持在1.9亿-2.1亿吨。天然气产量明显提升,从2012年的1106亿立方米增长到2019年的1762亿立方米。电力供应能力持续增强,累计发电装机容量20.1亿千瓦,2019年发电量7.5万亿千瓦时,较2012年分别增长75%、50%。可再生能源开发利用规模快速扩大,水电、风电、光伏发电累计装机容量均居世界首位。截至2019年底,在运在建核电装机容量6593万千瓦,居世界第二,在建核电装机容量世界第一。

  能源输送能力显著提高。建成天然气主干管道超过8.7万公里、石油主干管道5.5万公里、330千伏及以上输电线路长度30.2万公里。

  能源储备体系不断健全。建成9个国家石油储备基地,天然气产供储销体系建设取得初步成效,煤炭生产运输协同保障体系逐步完善,电力安全稳定运行达到世界先进水平,能源综合应急保障能力显著增强。

  (二)能源节约和消费结构优化成效显著

  能源利用效率显著提高。2012年以来单位国内生产总值能耗累计降低24.4%,相当于减少能源消费12.7亿吨标准煤。2012年至2019年,以能源消费年均2.8%的增长支撑了国民经济年均7%的增长。

  能源消费结构向清洁低碳加快转变。初步核算,2019年煤炭消费占能源消费总量比重为57.7%,比2012年降低10.8个百分点;天然气、水电、核电、风电等清洁能源消费量占能源消费总量比重为23.4%,比2012年提高8.9个百分点;非化石能源占能源消费总量比重达15.3%,比2012年提高5.6个百分点,已提前完成到2020年非化石能源消费比重达到15%左右的目标。新能源汽车快速发展,2019年新增量和保有量分别达120万辆和380万辆,均占全球总量一半以上;截至2019年底,全国电动汽车充电基础设施达120万处,建成世界最大规模充电网络,有效促进了交通领域能效提高和能源消费结构优化。

  (三)能源科技水平快速提升

  持续推进能源科技创新,能源技术水平不断提高,技术进步成为推动能源发展动力变革的基本力量。建立完备的水电、核电、风电、太阳能发电等清洁能源装备制造产业链,成功研发制造全球最大单机容量100万千瓦水电机组,具备最大单机容量达10兆瓦的全系列风电机组制造能力,不断刷新光伏电池转换效率世界纪录。建成若干应用先进三代技术的核电站,新一代核电、小型堆等多项核能利用技术取得明显突破。油气勘探开发技术能力持续提高,低渗原油及稠油高效开发、新一代复合化学驱等技术世界领先,页岩油气勘探开发技术和装备水平大幅提升,天然气水合物试采取得成功。发展煤炭绿色高效智能开采技术,大型煤矿采煤机械化程度达98%,掌握煤制油气产业化技术。建成规模最大、安全可靠、全球领先的电网,供电可靠性位居世界前列。“互联网+”智慧能源、储能、区块链、综合能源服务等一大批能源新技术、新模式、新业态正在蓬勃兴起。

  (四)能源与生态环境友好性明显改善

  中国把推进能源绿色发展作为促进生态文明建设的重要举措,坚决打好污染防治攻坚战、打赢蓝天保卫战。煤炭清洁开采和利用水平大幅提升,采煤沉陷区治理、绿色矿山建设取得显著成效。落实修订后的《大气污染防治法》,加大燃煤和其他能源污染防治力度。推动国家大气污染防治重点区域内新建、改建、扩建用煤项目实施煤炭等量或减量替代。能源绿色发展显著推动空气质量改善,二氧化硫、氮氧化物和烟尘排放量大幅下降。能源绿色发展对碳排放强度下降起到重要作用,2019年碳排放强度比2005年下降48.1%,超过了2020年碳排放强度比2005年下降40%-45%的目标,扭转了二氧化碳排放快速增长的局面。

  (五)能源治理机制持续完善

  全面提升能源领域市场化水平,营商环境不断优化,市场活力明显增强,市场主体和人民群众办事创业更加便利。进一步放宽能源领域外资市场准入,民间投资持续壮大,投资主体更加多元。发用电计划有序放开、交易机构独立规范运行、电力市场建设深入推进。加快推进油气勘查开采市场放开与矿业权流转、管网运营机制改革、原油进口动态管理等改革,完善油气交易中心建设。推进能源价格市场化,进一步放开竞争性环节价格,初步建立电力、油气网络环节科学定价制度。协同推进能源改革和法治建设,能源法律体系不断完善。覆盖战略、规划、政策、标准、监管、服务的能源治理机制基本形成。

  (六)能源惠民利民成果丰硕

  把保障和改善民生作为能源发展的根本出发点,保障城乡居民获得基本能源供应和服务,在全面建成小康社会和乡村振兴中发挥能源供应的基础保障作用。2016年至2019年,农网改造升级总投资达8300亿元,农村平均停电时间降低至15小时左右,农村居民用电条件明显改善。2013年至2015年,实施解决无电人口用电行动计划,2015年底完成全部人口都用上电的历史性任务。实施光伏扶贫工程等能源扶贫工程建设,优先在贫困地区进行能源开发项目布局,实施能源惠民工程,促进了贫困地区经济发展和贫困人口收入增加。完善天然气利用基础设施建设,扩大天然气供应区域,提高民生用气保障能力。北方地区清洁取暖取得明显进展,改善了城乡居民用能条件和居住环境。截至2019年底,北方地区清洁取暖面积达116亿平方米,比2016年增加51亿平方米。

  三、全面推进能源消费方式变革

  坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,坚持节能优先方针,树立节能就是增加资源、减少污染、造福人类的理念,把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域。

  (一)实行能耗双控制度

  实行能源消费总量和强度双控制度,按省、自治区、直辖市行政区域设定能源消费总量和强度控制目标,对各级地方政府进行监督考核。把节能指标纳入生态文明、绿色发展等绩效评价指标体系,引导转变发展理念。对重点用能单位分解能耗双控目标,开展目标责任评价考核,推动重点用能单位加强节能管理。

  (二)健全节能法律法规和标准体系

  修订实施《节约能源法》,建立完善工业、建筑、交通等重点领域和公共机构节能制度,健全节能监察、能源效率标识、固定资产投资项目节能审查、重点用能单位节能管理等配套法律制度。强化标准引领约束作用,健全节能标准体系,实施百项能效标准推进工程,发布实施340多项国家节能标准,其中近200项强制性标准,实现主要高耗能行业和终端用能产品全覆盖。加强节能执法监督,强化事中事后监管,严格执法问责,确保节能法律法规和强制性标准有效落实。

  (三)完善节能低碳激励政策

  实行促进节能的企业所得税、增值税优惠政策。鼓励进口先进节能技术、设备,控制出口耗能高、污染重的产品。健全绿色金融体系,利用能效信贷、绿色债券等支持节能项目。创新完善促进绿色发展的价格机制,实施差别电价、峰谷分时电价、阶梯电价、阶梯气价等,完善环保电价政策,调动市场主体和居民节能的积极性。在浙江等4省市开展用能权有偿使用和交易试点,在北京等7省市开展碳排放权交易试点。大力推行合同能源管理,鼓励节能技术和经营模式创新,发展综合能源服务。加强电力需求侧管理,推行电力需求侧响应的市场化机制,引导节约、有序、合理用电。建立能效“领跑者”制度,推动终端用能产品、高耗能行业、公共机构提升能效水平。

  (四)提升重点领域能效水平

  积极优化产业结构,大力发展低能耗的先进制造业、高新技术产业、现代服务业,推动传统产业智能化、清洁化改造。推动工业绿色循环低碳转型升级,全面实施绿色制造,建立健全节能监察执法和节能诊断服务机制,开展能效对标达标。提升新建建筑节能标准,深化既有建筑节能改造,优化建筑用能结构。构建节能高效的综合交通运输体系,推进交通运输用能清洁化,提高交通运输工具能效水平。全面建设节约型公共机构,促进公共机构为全社会节能工作作出表率。构建市场导向的绿色技术创新体系,促进绿色技术研发、转化与推广。推广国家重点节能低碳技术、工业节能技术装备、交通运输行业重点节能低碳技术等。推动全民节能,引导树立勤俭节约的消费观,倡导简约适度、绿色低碳的生活方式,反对奢侈浪费和不合理消费。

  (五)推动终端用能清洁化

  以京津冀及周边地区、长三角、珠三角、汾渭平原等地区为重点,实施煤炭消费减量替代和散煤综合治理,推广清洁高效燃煤锅炉,推行天然气、电力和可再生能源等替代低效和高污染煤炭的使用。制定财政、价格等支持政策,积极推进北方地区冬季清洁取暖,促进大气环境质量改善。推进终端用能领域以电代煤、以电代油,推广新能源汽车、热泵、电窑炉等新型用能方式。加强天然气基础设施建设与互联互通,在城镇燃气、工业燃料、燃气发电、交通运输等领域推进天然气高效利用。大力推进天然气热电冷联供的供能方式,推进分布式可再生能源发展,推行终端用能领域多能协同和能源综合梯级利用。

  四、建设多元清洁的能源供应体系

  立足基本国情和发展阶段,确立生态优先、绿色发展的导向,坚持在保护中发展、在发展中保护,深化能源供给侧结构性改革,优先发展非化石能源,推进化石能源清洁高效开发利用,健全能源储运调峰体系,促进区域多能互补协调发展。

  (一)优先发展非化石能源

  开发利用非化石能源是推进能源绿色低碳转型的主要途径。中国把非化石能源放在能源发展优先位置,大力推进低碳能源替代高碳能源、可再生能源替代化石能源。

  推动太阳能多元化利用。按照技术进步、成本降低、扩大市场、完善体系的原则,全面推进太阳能多方式、多元化利用。统筹光伏发电的布局与市场消纳,集中式与分布式并举开展光伏发电建设,实施光伏发电“领跑者”计划,采用市场竞争方式配置项目,加快推动光伏发电技术进步和成本降低,光伏产业已成为具有国际竞争力的优势产业。完善光伏发电分布式应用的电网接入等服务机制,推动光伏与农业、养殖、治沙等综合发展,形成多元化光伏发电发展模式。通过示范项目建设推进太阳能热发电产业化发展,为相关产业链的发展提供市场支撑。推动太阳能热利用不断拓展市场领域和利用方式,在工业、商业、公共服务等领域推广集中热水工程,开展太阳能供暖试点。

  全面协调推进风电开发。按照统筹规划、集散并举、陆海齐进、有效利用的原则,在做好风电开发与电力送出和市场消纳衔接的前提下,有序推进风电开发利用和大型风电基地建设。积极开发中东部分散风能资源。积极稳妥发展海上风电。优先发展平价风电项目,推行市场化竞争方式配置风电项目。以风电的规模化开发利用促进风电制造产业发展,风电制造产业的创新能力和国际竞争力不断提升,产业服务体系逐步完善。

  推进水电绿色发展。坚持生态优先、绿色发展,在做好生态环境保护和移民安置的前提下,科学有序推进水电开发,做到开发与保护并重、建设与管理并重。以西南地区主要河流为重点,有序推进流域大型水电基地建设,合理控制中小水电开发。推进小水电绿色发展,加大对实施河流生态修复的财政投入,促进河流生态健康。完善水电开发移民利益共享政策,坚持水电开发促进地方经济社会发展和移民脱贫致富,努力做到“开发一方资源、发展一方经济、改善一方环境、造福一方百姓”。

  安全有序发展核电。中国将核安全作为核电发展的生命线,坚持发展与安全并重,实行安全有序发展核电的方针,加强核电规划、选址、设计、建造、运行和退役等全生命周期管理和监督,坚持采用最先进的技术、最严格的标准发展核电。完善多层次核能、核安全法规标准体系,加强核应急预案和法制、体制、机制建设,形成有效应对核事故的国家核应急能力体系。强化核安保与核材料管制,严格履行核安保与核不扩散国际义务,始终保持着良好的核安保记录。迄今为止在运核电机组总体安全状况良好,未发生国际核事件分级2级及以上的事件或事故。

  因地制宜发展生物质能、地热能和海洋能。采用符合环保标准的先进技术发展城镇生活垃圾焚烧发电,推动生物质发电向热电联产转型升级。积极推进生物天然气产业化发展和农村沼气转型升级。坚持不与人争粮、不与粮争地的原则,严格控制燃料乙醇加工产能扩张,重点提升生物柴油产品品质,推进非粮生物液体燃料技术产业化发展。创新地热能开发利用模式,开展地热能城镇集中供暖,建设地热能高效开发利用示范区,有序开展地热能发电。积极推进潮流能、波浪能等海洋能技术研发和示范应用。

  全面提升可再生能源利用率。完善可再生能源发电全额保障性收购制度。实施清洁能源消纳行动计划,多措并举促进清洁能源利用。提高电力规划整体协调性,优化电源结构和布局,充分发挥市场调节功能,形成有利于可再生能源利用的体制机制,全面提升电力系统灵活性和调节能力。实行可再生能源电力消纳保障机制,对各省、自治区、直辖市行政区域按年度确定电力消费中可再生能源应达到的最低比重指标,要求电力销售企业和电力用户共同履行可再生能源电力消纳责任。发挥电网优化资源配置平台作用,促进源网荷储互动协调,完善可再生能源电力消纳考核和监管机制。可再生能源电力利用率显著提升,2019年全国平均风电利用率达96%、光伏发电利用率达98%、主要流域水能利用率达96%。

  (二)清洁高效开发利用化石能源

  根据国内资源禀赋,以资源环境承载力为基础,统筹化石能源开发利用与生态环境保护,有序发展先进产能,加快淘汰落后产能,推进煤炭清洁高效利用,提升油气勘探开发力度,促进增储上产,提高油气自给能力。

  推进煤炭安全智能绿色开发利用。努力建设集约、安全、高效、清洁的煤炭工业体系。推进煤炭供给侧结构性改革,完善煤炭产能置换政策,加快淘汰落后产能,有序释放优质产能,煤炭开发布局和产能结构大幅优化,大型现代化煤矿成为煤炭生产主体。2016年至2019年,累计退出煤炭落后产能9亿吨/年以上。加大安全生产投入,健全安全生产长效机制,加快煤矿机械化、自动化、信息化、智能化建设,全面提升煤矿安全生产效率和安全保障水平。推进大型煤炭基地绿色化开采和改造,发展煤炭洗选加工,发展矿区循环经济,加强矿区生态环境治理,建成一批绿色矿山,资源综合利用水平全面提升。实施煤炭清洁高效利用行动,煤炭消费中发电用途占比进一步提升。煤制油气、低阶煤分质利用等煤炭深加工产业化示范取得积极进展。

  清洁高效发展火电。坚持清洁高效原则发展火电。推进煤电布局优化和技术升级,积极稳妥化解煤电过剩产能。建立并完善煤电规划建设风险预警机制,严控煤电规划建设,加快淘汰落后产能。截至2019年底,累计淘汰煤电落后产能超过1亿千瓦,煤电装机占总发电装机比重从2012年的65.7%下降至2019年的52%。实施煤电节能减排升级与改造行动,执行更严格能效环保标准。煤电机组发电效率、污染物排放控制达到世界先进水平。合理布局适度发展天然气发电,鼓励在电力负荷中心建设天然气调峰电站,提升电力系统安全保障水平。

  提高天然气生产能力。加强基础地质调查和资源评价,加强科技创新、产业扶持,促进常规天然气增产,重点突破页岩气、煤层气等非常规天然气勘探开发,推动页岩气规模化开发,增加国内天然气供应。完善非常规天然气产业政策体系,促进页岩气、煤层气开发利用。以四川盆地、鄂尔多斯盆地、塔里木盆地为重点,建成多个百亿立方米级天然气生产基地。2017年以来,每年新增天然气产量超过100亿立方米。

  提升石油勘探开发与加工水平。加强国内勘探开发,深化体制机制改革、促进科技研发和新技术应用,加大低品位资源勘探开发力度,推进原油增储上产。发展先进采油技术,提高原油采收率,稳定松辽盆地、渤海湾盆地等东部老油田产量。以新疆地区、鄂尔多斯盆地等为重点,推进西部新油田增储上产。加强渤海、东海和南海等海域近海油气勘探开发,推进深海对外合作,2019年海上油田产量约4000万吨。推进炼油行业转型升级。实施成品油质量升级,提升燃油品质,促进减少机动车尾气污染物排放。

  (三)加强能源储运调峰体系建设

  统筹发展煤电油气多种能源输运方式,构建互联互通输配网络,打造稳定可靠的储运调峰体系,提升应急保障能力。

  加强能源输配网络建设。持续加强跨省跨区骨干能源输送通道建设,提升能源主要产地与主要消费区域间通达能力,促进区域优势互补、协调发展。提升既有铁路煤炭运输专线的输送能力,持续提升铁路运输比例和煤炭运输效率。推进天然气主干管道与省级管网、液化天然气接收站、储气库间互联互通,加快建设“全国一张网”,初步形成调度灵活、安全可靠的天然气输运体系。稳步推进跨省跨区输电通道建设,扩大西北、华北、东北和西南等区域清洁能源配置范围。完善区域电网主网架,加强省级区域内部电网建设。开展柔性直流输电示范工程建设,积极建设能源互联网,推动构建规模合理、分层分区、安全可靠的电力系统。

  健全能源储备应急体系。建立国家储备与企业储备相结合、战略储备与商业储备并举的能源储备体系,提高石油、天然气和煤炭等储备能力。完善国家石油储备体系,加快石油储备基地建设。建立健全地方政府、供气企业、管输企业、城镇燃气企业各负其责的多层次天然气储气调峰体系。完善以企业社会责任储备为主体、地方政府储备为补充的煤炭储备体系。健全国家大面积停电事件应急机制,全面提升电力供应可靠性和应急保障能力。建立健全与能源储备能力相匹配的输配保障体系,构建规范化的收储、轮换、动用体系,完善决策执行的监管机制。

  完善能源调峰体系。坚持供给侧与需求侧并重,完善市场机制,加强技术支撑,增强调峰能力,提升能源系统综合利用效率。加快抽水蓄能电站建设,合理布局天然气调峰电站,实施既有燃煤热电联产机组、燃煤发电机组灵活性改造,改善电力系统调峰性能,促进清洁能源消纳。推动储能与新能源发电、电力系统协调优化运行,开展电化学储能等调峰试点。推进天然气储气调峰设施建设,完善天然气储气调峰辅助服务市场化机制,提升天然气调峰能力。完善电价、气价政策,引导电力、天然气用户自主参与调峰、错峰,提升需求侧响应能力。健全电力和天然气负荷可中断、可调节管理体系,挖掘需求侧潜力。

  (四)支持农村及贫困地区能源发展

  落实乡村振兴战略,提高农村生活用能保障水平,让农村居民有更多实实在在的获得感、幸福感、安全感。

  加快完善农村能源基础设施。让所有人都能用上电,是全面建成小康社会的基本条件。实施全面解决无电人口问题三年行动计划,2015年底全面解决了无电人口用电问题。中国高度重视农村电网改造升级,着力补齐农村电网发展短板。实施小城镇中心村农网改造升级、平原农村地区机井通电和贫困村通动力电专项工程。2018年起,重点推进深度贫困地区和抵边村寨农网改造升级攻坚。加快天然气支线管网和基础设施建设,扩大管网覆盖范围。在天然气管网未覆盖的地区推进液化天然气、压缩天然气、液化石油气供应网点建设,因地制宜开发利用可再生能源,改善农村供能条件。

  精准实施能源扶贫工程。能源不仅是经济发展的动力,也是扶贫的重要支撑。中国合理开发利用贫困地区能源资源,积极推进贫困地区重大能源项目建设,提升贫困地区自身“造血”能力,为贫困地区经济发展增添新动能。在革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区优先布局能源开发项目,建设清洁电力外送基地,为所在地区经济增长作出重要贡献。在水电开发建设中,形成了水库移民“搬得出、稳得住、能致富”的可持续发展模式,让贫困人口更多分享资源开发收益。加强财政投入和政策扶持,支持贫困地区发展生物质能、风能、太阳能、小水电等清洁能源。推行多种形式的光伏与农业融合发展模式,实施光伏扶贫工程,建成了成千上万座遍布贫困农村地区的“阳光银行”。

  推进北方农村地区冬季清洁取暖。北方地区冬季清洁取暖关系广大人民群众生活,是重大民生工程、民心工程。以保障北方地区广大群众温暖过冬、减少大气污染为立足点,在北方农村地区因地制宜开展清洁取暖。按照企业为主、政府推动、居民可承受的方针,稳妥推进“煤改气”“煤改电”,支持利用清洁生物质燃料、地热能、太阳能供暖以及热泵技术应用。截至2019年底,北方农村地区清洁取暖率约31%,比2016年提高21.6个百分点;北方农村地区累计完成散煤替代约2300万户,其中京津冀及周边地区、汾渭平原累计完成散煤清洁化替代约1800万户。

  五、发挥科技创新第一动力作用

  抓住全球新一轮科技革命与产业变革的机遇,在能源领域大力实施创新驱动发展战略,增强能源科技创新能力,通过技术进步解决能源资源约束、生态环境保护、应对气候变化等重大问题和挑战。

  (一)完善能源科技创新政策顶层设计

  中国将能源作为国家创新驱动发展战略的重要组成部分,把能源科技创新摆在更加突出的地位。《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要》将安全清洁高效现代能源技术作为重要战略方向和重点领域。制定能源资源科技创新规划和面向2035年的能源、资源科技发展战略规划,部署了能源科技创新重大举措和重大任务,努力提升科技创新引领和支撑作用。制定能源技术创新规划和《能源技术革命创新行动计划(2016-2030年)》,提出能源技术创新的重点方向和技术路线图。深化能源科技体制改革,形成政府引导、市场主导、企业为主体、社会参与、多方协同的能源技术创新体系。加大重要能源领域和新兴能源产业科技创新投入,加强人才队伍建设,提升各类主体创新能力。

  (二)建设多元化多层次能源科技创新平台

  依托骨干企业、科研院所和高校,建成一批高水平能源技术创新平台,有效激发了各类主体的创新活力。布局建设40多个国家重点实验室和一批国家工程研究中心,重点围绕煤炭安全绿色智能开采、可再生能源高效利用、储能与分布式能源等技术方向开展相关研究,促进能源科技进步。布局建设80余个国家能源研发中心和国家能源重点实验室,围绕煤炭、石油、天然气、火电、核电、可再生能源、能源装备重点领域和关键环节开展研究,覆盖当前能源技术创新的重点领域和前沿方向。大型能源企业适应自身发展和行业需要,不断加强科技能力建设,形成若干专业领域、有影响力的研究机构。地方政府结合本地产业优势,采取多种方式加强科研能力建设。在“大众创业、万众创新”政策支持下,各类社会主体积极开展科技创新,形成了众多能源科技创新型企业。

  (三)开展能源重大领域协同科技创新

  实施重大科技项目和工程,实现能源领域关键技术跨越式发展。聚焦国家重大战略产业化目标,实施油气科技重大专项,重点突破油气地质新理论与高效勘探开发关键技术,开展页岩油、页岩气、天然气水合物等非常规资源经济高效开发技术攻关。实施核电科技重大专项,围绕三代压水堆和四代高温气冷堆技术,开展关键核心技术攻关,持续推进核电自主创新。面向重大共性关键技术,部署开展新能源汽车、智能电网技术与装备、煤矿智能化开采技术与装备、煤炭清洁高效利用与新型节能技术、可再生能源与氢能技术等方面研究。面向国家重大战略任务,重点部署能源高效洁净利用与转化的物理化学基础研究,推动以基础研究带动应用技术突破。

  (四)依托重大能源工程提升能源技术装备水平

  在全球能源绿色低碳转型发展趋势下,加快传统能源技术装备升级换代,加强新兴能源技术装备自主创新,清洁低碳能源技术水平显著提升。依托重大装备制造和重大示范工程,推动关键能源装备技术攻关、试验示范和推广应用。完善能源装备计量、标准、检测和认证体系,提高重大能源装备研发、设计、制造和成套能力。围绕能源安全供应、清洁能源发展和化石能源清洁高效利用三大方向,着力突破能源装备制造关键技术、材料和零部件等瓶颈,推动全产业链技术创新。开展先进能源技术装备的重大能源示范工程建设,提升煤炭清洁智能采掘洗选、深水和非常规油气勘探开发、油气储运和输送、清洁高效燃煤发电、先进核电、可再生能源发电、燃气轮机、储能、先进电网、煤炭深加工等领域装备的技术水平。

  (五)支持新技术新模式新业态发展

  当前,世界正处在新科技革命和产业革命交汇点,新技术突破加速带动产业变革,促进能源新模式新业态不断涌现。大力推动能源技术与现代信息、材料和先进制造技术深度融合,依托“互联网+”智慧能源建设,探索能源生产和消费新模式。加快智能光伏创新升级,推动光伏发电与农业、渔业、牧业、建筑等融合发展,拓展光伏发电互补应用新空间,形成广泛开发利用新能源的新模式。加速发展绿氢制取、储运和应用等氢能产业链技术装备,促进氢能燃料电池技术链、氢燃料电池汽车产业链发展。支持能源各环节各场景储能应用,着力推进储能与可再生能源互补发展。支持新能源微电网建设,形成发储用一体化局域清洁供能系统。推动综合能源服务新模式,实现终端能源多能互补、协同高效。在试点示范项目引领和带动下,各类能源新技术、新模式、新业态持续涌现,形成能源创新发展的“聚变效应”。

  六、全面深化能源体制改革

  充分发挥市场在能源资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,深化重点领域和关键环节市场化改革,破除妨碍发展的体制机制障碍,着力解决市场体系不完善等问题,为维护国家能源安全、推进能源高质量发展提供制度保障。

  (一)构建有效竞争的能源市场

  大力培育多元市场主体,打破垄断、放宽准入、鼓励竞争,构建统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场体系,着力清除市场壁垒,提高能源资源配置效率和公平性。

  培育多元能源市场主体。支持各类市场主体依法平等进入负面清单以外的能源领域,形成多元市场主体共同参与的格局。深化油气勘查开采体制改革,开放油气勘查开采市场,实行勘查区块竞争出让和更加严格的区块退出机制。支持符合条件的企业进口原油。改革油气管网运营机制,实现管输和销售业务分离。稳步推进售电侧改革,有序向社会资本开放配售电业务,深化电网企业主辅分离。积极培育配售电、储能、综合能源服务等新兴市场主体。深化国有能源企业改革,支持非公有制发展,积极稳妥开展能源领域混合所有制改革,激发企业活力动力。

  建设统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场体系。根据不同能源品种特点,搭建煤炭、电力、石油和天然气交易平台,促进供需互动。推动建设现代化煤炭市场体系,发展动力煤、炼焦煤、原油期货交易和天然气现货交易。全面放开经营性电力用户发用电计划,建设中长期交易、现货交易等电能量交易和辅助服务交易相结合的电力市场。积极推进全国统一电力市场和全国碳排放权交易市场建设。

  (二)完善主要由市场决定能源价格的机制

  按照“管住中间、放开两头”总体思路,稳步放开竞争性领域和竞争性环节价格,促进价格反映市场供求、引导资源配置;严格政府定价成本监审,推进科学合理定价。

  有序放开竞争性环节价格。推动分步实现公益性以外的发售电价格由市场形成,电力用户或售电主体可与发电企业通过市场化方式确定交易价格。进一步深化燃煤发电上网电价机制改革,实行“基准价+上下浮动”的市场化价格机制。稳步推进以竞争性招标方式确定新建风电、光伏发电项目上网电价。推动按照“风险共担、利益共享”原则协商或通过市场化方式形成跨省跨区送电价格。完善成品油价格形成机制,推进天然气价格市场化改革。坚持保基本、促节约原则,全面推行居民阶梯电价、阶梯气价制度。

  科学核定自然垄断环节价格。按照“准许成本+合理收益”原则,合理制定电网、天然气管网输配价格。开展两个监管周期输配电定价成本监审和电价核定。强化输配气价格监管,开展成本监审,构建天然气输配领域全环节价格监管体系。

  (三)创新能源科学管理和优化服务

  进一步转变政府职能,简政放权、放管结合、优化服务,着力打造服务型政府。发挥能源战略规划和宏观政策导向作用,集中力量办大事。强化能源市场监管,提升监管效能,促进各类市场主体公平竞争。坚持人民至上、生命至上理念,牢牢守住能源安全生产底线。

  激发市场主体活力。深化能源“放管服”改革,减少中央政府层面能源项目核准,将部分能源项目审批核准权限下放地方,取消可由市场主体自主决策的能源项目审批。减少前置审批事项,降低市场准入门槛,加强和规范事中事后监管。提升“获得电力”服务水平,压减办电时间、环节和成本。推行“互联网+政务”服务,推进能源政务服务事项“一窗受理”“应进必进”,提升“一站式”服务水平。

  引导资源配置方向。制定实施《能源生产和消费革命战略(2016-2030)》以及能源发展规划和系列专项规划、行动计划,明确能源发展的总体目标和重点任务,引导社会主体的投资方向。完善能源领域财政、税收、产业和投融资政策,全面实施原油、天然气、煤炭资源税从价计征,提高成品油消费税,引导市场主体合理开发利用能源资源。构建绿色金融正向激励体系,推广新能源汽车,发展清洁能源。支持大宗能源商品贸易人民币计价结算。

  促进市场公平竞争。理顺能源监管职责关系,逐步实现电力监管向综合能源监管转型。严格电力交易、调度、供电服务和市场秩序监管,强化电网公平接入、电网投资行为、成本及投资运行效率监管。加强油气管网设施公平开放监管,推进油气管网设施企业信息公开,提高油气管网设施利用率。全面推行“双随机、一公开”监管,提高监管公平公正性。加强能源行业信用体系建设,依法依规建立严重失信主体名单制度,实施失信惩戒,提升信用监管效能。包容审慎监管新兴业态,促进新动能发展壮大。畅通能源监管热线,发挥社会监督作用。

  筑牢安全生产底线。健全煤矿安全生产责任体系,提高煤矿安全监管监察执法效能,建设煤矿安全生产标准化管理体系,增强防灾治灾能力,煤矿安全生产形势总体好转。落实电力安全企业主体责任、行业监管责任和属地管理责任,提升电力系统网络安全监督管理,加强电力建设工程施工安全监管和质量监督,电力系统安全风险总体可控,未发生大面积停电事故。加强油气全产业链安全监管,油气安全生产形势保持稳定。持续强化核安全监管体系建设,提高核安全监管能力,核电厂和研究堆总体安全状况良好,在建工程建造质量整体受控。

  (四)健全能源法治体系

  发挥法治固根本、稳预期、利长远的保障作用,坚持能源立法同改革发展相衔接,及时修改和废止不适应改革发展要求的法律法规;坚持法定职责必须为、法无授权不可为,依法全面履行政府职能。

  完善能源法律体系。推进能源领域法律及行政法规制修订工作,加强能源领域法律法规实施监督检查,加快电力、煤炭、石油、天然气、核电、新能源等领域规章规范性文件的“立改废”进程,将改革成果体现在法律法规和重大政策中。

  推进能源依法治理。推进法治政府建设,推动将法治贯穿于能源战略、规划、政策、标准的制定、实施和监督管理全过程。构建政企联动、互为支撑的能源普法新格局,形成尊法、学法、守法、用法良好氛围。创新行政执法方式,全面推行行政执法公示制度、行政执法全过程记录制度、重大执法决定法制审核制度,全面落实行政执法责任制。畅通行政复议和行政诉讼渠道,确保案件依法依规办理,依法保护行政相对人合法权益,让人民在每一个案件中切实感受到公平正义。

  七、全方位加强能源国际合作

  中国践行绿色发展理念,遵循互利共赢原则开展国际合作,努力实现开放条件下能源安全,扩大能源领域对外开放,推动高质量共建“一带一路”,积极参与全球能源治理,引导应对气候变化国际合作,推动构建人类命运共同体。

  (一)持续深化能源领域对外开放

  中国坚定不移维护全球能源市场稳定,扩大能源领域对外开放。大幅度放宽外商投资准入,打造市场化法治化国际化营商环境,促进贸易和投资自由化便利化。全面实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度,能源领域外商投资准入限制持续减少。全面取消煤炭、油气、电力(除核电外)、新能源等领域外资准入限制。推动广东、湖北、重庆、海南等自由贸易试验区能源产业发展,支持浙江自由贸易试验区油气全产业链开放发展。埃克森美孚、通用电气、碧辟、法国电力、西门子等国际能源公司在中国投资规模稳步增加,上海特斯拉电动汽车等重大外资项目相继在中国落地,外资加油站数量快速增长。

  (二)着力推进共建“一带一路”能源合作

  中国秉持共商共建共享原则,坚持开放、绿色、廉洁理念,努力实现高标准、惠民生、可持续的目标,同各国在共建“一带一路”框架下加强能源合作,在实现自身发展的同时更多惠及其他国家和人民,为推动共同发展创造有利条件。

  推动互利共赢的能源务实合作。中国与全球100多个国家、地区开展广泛的能源贸易、投资、产能、装备、技术、标准等领域合作。中国企业高标准建设适应合作国迫切需求的能源项目,帮助当地把资源优势转化为发展优势,促进当地技术进步、就业扩大、经济增长和民生改善,实现优势互补、共同发展。通过第三方市场合作,与一些国家和大型跨国公司开展清洁能源领域合作,推动形成开放透明、普惠共享、互利共赢的能源合作格局。2019年,中国等30个国家共同建立了“一带一路”能源合作伙伴关系。

  建设绿色丝绸之路。中国是全球最大的可再生能源市场,也是全球最大的清洁能源设备制造国。积极推动全球能源绿色低碳转型,广泛开展可再生能源合作,如几内亚卡雷塔水电项目、匈牙利考波什堡光伏电站项目、黑山莫茹拉风电项目、阿联酋迪拜光热光伏混合发电项目、巴基斯坦卡洛特水电站和真纳光伏园一期光伏项目等。可再生能源技术在中国市场的广泛应用,促进了全世界范围可再生能源成本的下降,加速了全球能源转型进程。

  加强能源基础设施互联互通。积极推动跨国、跨区域能源基础设施联通,为能源资源互补协作和互惠贸易创造条件。中俄、中国-中亚、中缅油气管道等一批标志性的能源重大项目建成投运,中国与周边7个国家实现电力联网,能源基础设施互联互通水平显著提升,在更大范围内促进能源资源优化配置,促进区域国家经济合作。

  提高全球能源可及性。积极推动“确保人人获得负担得起的、可靠和可持续的现代能源”可持续发展目标的国内落实,积极参与能源可及性国际合作,采用多种融资模式为无电地区因地制宜开发并网、微网和离网电力项目,为使用传统炊事燃料的地区捐赠清洁炉灶,提高合作国能源普及水平,惠及当地民生。

  (三)积极参与全球能源治理

  中国坚定支持多边主义,按照互利共赢原则开展双多边能源合作,积极支持国际能源组织和合作机制在全球能源治理中发挥作用,在国际多边合作框架下积极推动全球能源市场稳定与供应安全、能源绿色转型发展,为促进全球能源可持续发展贡献中国智慧、中国力量。

  融入多边能源治理。积极参与联合国、二十国集团、亚太经合组织、金砖国家等多边机制下的能源国际合作,在联合研究发布报告、成立机构等方面取得积极进展。中国与90多个国家和地区建立了政府间能源合作机制,与30多个能源领域国际组织和多边机制建立了合作关系。2012年以来,中国先后成为国际可再生能源署成员国、国际能源宪章签约观察国、国际能源署联盟国等。

  倡导区域能源合作。搭建中国与东盟、阿盟、非盟、中东欧等区域能源合作平台,建立东亚峰会清洁能源论坛,中国推动能力建设与技术创新合作,为18个国家提供了清洁能源利用、能效等领域的培训。

  (四)携手应对全球气候变化

  中国秉持人类命运共同体理念,与其他国家团结合作、共同应对全球气候变化,积极推动能源绿色低碳转型。

  加强应对气候变化国际合作。在联合国、世界银行、全球环境基金、亚洲开发银行等机构和德国等国家支持下,中国着眼能源绿色低碳转型,通过经验分享、技术交流、项目对接等方式,同相关国家在可再生能源开发利用、低碳城市示范等领域开展广泛而持续的双多边合作。

  支持发展中国家提升应对气候变化能力。深化气候变化领域南南合作,支持最不发达国家、小岛屿国家、非洲国家和其他发展中国家应对气候变化挑战。从2016年起,中国在发展中国家启动10个低碳示范区、100个减缓和适应气候变化项目和1000个应对气候变化培训名额的合作项目,帮助发展中国家能源清洁低碳发展,共同应对全球气候变化。

  (五)共同促进全球能源可持续发展的中国主张

  人类已进入互联互通的时代,维护能源安全、应对全球气候变化已成为全世界面临的重大挑战。当前持续蔓延的新冠肺炎疫情,更加凸显各国利益休戚相关、命运紧密相连。中国倡议国际社会共同努力,促进全球能源可持续发展,应对气候变化挑战,建设清洁美丽世界。

  协同推进能源绿色低碳转型,促进清洁美丽世界建设。应对气候变化挑战,改善全球生态环境,需要各国的共同努力。各国应选择绿色发展道路,采取绿色低碳循环可持续的生产生活方式,推动能源转型,协同应对和解决能源发展中的问题,携手应对全球气候变化,为建设清洁美丽世界作出积极贡献。

  协同巩固能源领域多边合作,加速经济绿色复苏增长。完善国际能源治理机制,维护开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的多边国际能源合作格局。深化能源领域对话沟通与务实合作,推动经济复苏和融合发展。加强跨国、跨地区能源清洁低碳技术创新和标准合作,促进能源技术转移和推广普及,完善国际协同的知识产权保护。

  协同畅通国际能源贸易投资,维护全球能源市场稳定。消除能源贸易和投资壁垒,促进贸易投资便利化,开展能源资源和产能合作,深化能源基础设施合作,提升互联互通水平,促进资源高效配置和市场深度融合。秉持共商共建共享原则,积极寻求发展利益最大公约数,促进全球能源可持续发展,共同维护全球能源安全。

  协同促进欠发达地区能源可及性,努力解决能源贫困问题。共同推动实现能源领域可持续发展目标,支持欠发达国家和地区缺乏现代能源供应的人口获得电力等基本的能源服务。帮助欠发达国家和地区推广应用先进绿色能源技术,培训能源专业人才,完善能源服务体系,形成绿色能源开发与消除能源贫困相融合的新模式。

  结束语

  中国即将开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家的新征程。进入新的发展阶段,中国将继续坚定不移推进能源革命,加快构建清洁低碳、安全高效的能源体系,为2035年基本实现社会主义现代化、本世纪中叶全面建成社会主义现代化强国提供坚强的能源保障。

  当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局。生态环境事关人类生存和永续发展,需要各国团结合作,共同应对挑战。中国将秉持人类命运共同体理念,继续与各国一道,深化全球能源治理合作,推动全球能源可持续发展,维护全球能源安全,努力实现更加普惠、包容、均衡、平等的发展,建设更加清洁、美丽、繁荣、宜居的世界。

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