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The Right to Development: China's Philosophy, Practice and Contribution (Full Text)
国务院新闻办公室网站 www.scio.gov.cn   2016-12-02   来源:China SCIO
  

V. Promoting Cultural Progress

The Chinese government endeavors to restructure China's cultural system, free and develop cultural productivity, so as to create equal opportunity for all citizens to enjoy benefits of cultural development and to have access to cultural development opportunities, and ensure realization of their right to cultural development.

The building of a public cultural service system has been accelerated. In 2015, the Chinese government issued "Opinions on Accelerating the Building of a Modernized Public Cultural Service System" and "Guidance for National Basic Public Cultural Services (2015-2020)," presenting an all-round plan for accelerating the building of a modernized public cultural service system, promoting standard basic public cultural services and equal access, and protecting the people's basic cultural rights and interests. China has accelerated public digital cultural programs, such as the National Public Culture Digital Platform, and the National Digital Culture Network (http://www.ndcnc.gov.cn/). By the end of 2015, the National Cultural Information Resources Sharing Project had completed 1 national center, 33 provincial centers, 2,843 municipal and county centers, 35,719 township and town (sub-district) stations, and 700,000 village (community) stations. China has improved the public cultural infrastructure network and increased the capacity of community-level cultural services. By the end of 2015, China had 2,037 art performance troupes, 3,139 public libraries, 3,315 cultural centers, 2,981 museums, 40 provincial digital libraries, and 479 municipal and prefectural digital libraries. Continuous efforts were made to open public cultural facilities to the public for free, including public art museums at all levels, and basic public cultural services in libraries and cultural centers (stations) at all levels. By promoting projects such as Radio and TV Programs for Each Village and Each Rural Household, Town and Township Comprehensive Cultural Centers, Rural Cinema, Rural Libraries, and Rural Digital Culture, China has greatly enhanced rural cultural service capacity.

Literature, arts, news, publishing, radio, film, television and sports are thriving. In 2015, China published more than 43 billion copies of newspapers, 2.9 billion copies of periodicals, and 8.7 billion copies of books. The number of books published per capita reached 6.32. A total of 236 million households subscribed to cable TV, including 198 million subscribers to digital cable TV. At the end of the year, the radio coverage rate was 98.2 percent of the total population, and TV coverage was 98.8 percent of the total population. In 2015, China produced 395 TV serials totaling 16,560 episodes, 134,000 minutes of TV animation, 686 feature films, and 202 popular science films, documentaries, animation and special films. China has adopted value-added tax exemption for revenues from rural cinemas. It has also given support to small and micro cultural businesses, and implemented policies offering construction subsidies, financial support and differentiated land designation for county cinemas in central and western regions. China has launched an "All People Reading" campaign nationwide. The 2016 "Literary China" series of activities has benefitted over 800 million participants, forming a congenial social atmosphere for reading. China has accelerated the development of the sports industry under a policy that has the combined support of government, society and enterprises. China has launched a nationwide fitness campaign, basically established a corresponding organizational network, and greatly increased the number of sports venues and facilities. In 2015 China allocated RMB870 million in subsidies to support large sports venues and facilities to open to the public for free or at low cost. In 2014 the sales of the National Sports Lottery reached RMB174.6 billion, and the funds raised for the public totaled RMB45.5 billion.

Cultural programs in ethnic minority areas are developing. China has vigorously supported cultural development in ethnic minority areas. Through such programs as the Frontier Cultural Corridor Project and National Cultural Information Resources Sharing Project, China has improved the public cultural service system in ethnic minority areas. By the end of 2015, nine natural and cultural sites scattered in China's ethnic minority areas, including the Potala Palace in Tibet, were added to UNESCO's World Heritage List. Fourteen ethnic minority arts including Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang were added to UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, and another four, including the Qiang ethnic group's New Year Festival, were added to the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. Ten experimental zones for cultural protection in ethnic minority areas have been established. A total of 479 ethnic minority heritage items have been included in the four lists of national representative intangible cultural heritage, and 524 trustees from ethnic minority groups have been put on the four lists of national representative trustees of intangible cultural heritage. The book series of explanatory notes on ancient books of ethnic minority groups, titled Synopsis of the General Catalogue of Ancient Books of Ethnic Minority Groups of China, was published in 2014. China has promoted the regulation, standardization and computerized processing of languages and scripts of ethnic minority groups. Projects have been initiated for the research and formulation of regulations on the transliteration of personal names into standard Chinese from Mongolian, Tibetan, Uygur, Kazakh, Yi and other ethnic minority languages. China has set up databanks for ethnic minority languages on the brink of extinction, and initiated and implemented the Project for the Protection of Chinese Language Resources. By the end of 2015 a total of 54 ethnic minority groups were using more than 80 spoken languages of their own ethnic groups, and 21 ethnic minority groups were using 28 scripts of their own ethnic groups. Now nearly 200 radio stations nationwide broadcast in 25 ethnic minority languages; 32 publishing houses of various types publish books in ethnic minority languages; 11 film dubbing centers, using 17 ethnic minority languages and 37 ethnic minority dialects, finished the dubbing of movies, amounting to over 3,000 versions from 2012 to 2015. In 2015, China produced many publications in ethnic minority languages, including 69.12 million copies of 9,192 book titles, 196.09 million copies of newspapers and 12.45 million copies of periodicals.

Cultural development for the elderly, the disabled and rural migrant workers has received high attention. Relying on public libraries, cultural centers and other cultural facilities, China has opened a group of demonstration universities for the elderly to meet their multi-level cultural demands. China has also improved the environment for the disabled, encouraging them to participate in cultural and sports activities. By the end of 2015, China had more than 300,000 liaison stations for volunteers helping the disabled, with 8.5 million registered volunteers, providing 100 million interventions on behalf of the disabled. China has issued the "Outline for the National IT Application Development Strategy," enhanced information accessibility of government websites, and encouraged non-governmental organizations to provide individualized information services to the disabled. The official website of the State Council (http://www.gov.cn/) has opened a special column for services for the disabled. The China Braille Library and China Digital Library for the visually impaired went online. By the end of 2014, China had set up 1,515 reading rooms for the visually impaired in public libraries at all levels nationwide. By the end of 2015, China had set up 65,918 public e-libraries, mainly to serve the elderly and rural migrant workers.

VI. Promoting Social Development

China pursues shared development and common prosperity for all people as its development goals.

Over the years, China has been committed to developing various social undertakings, establishing and improving various types of social security and social service systems, and continuously improving the provision of social security. It has striven to provide effective social resources and promote equal access to education so that all share the fruits of development.

Protection of the right to health has significantly increased. The infant mortality rate has dropped from 20 percent in 1949, when the PRC was founded, to 0.81 percent in 2015, and the maternal mortality rate has dropped from 1,500 per 100,000 to 20.1 per 100,000. From 1978 to 2015, total national expenditure on health increased from RMB11.02 billion to RMB4.10 trillion, of which government expenditure on health increased from RMB3.54 billion to RMB1.25 trillion. Per capita health expenditure increased from RMB11.5 to RMB2,980.8, the number of medical and health institutions grew from 169,732 to 983,528, and the total number of health workers increased from 7,883,000 to 10,693,900. In 2015, the number of community medical and health service centers reached 361,000, with the coverage of 52.9 percent. The number of beds in social service institutions with accommodation increased from 828,000 in 1991 to 7,329,000 in 2015, of which beds for the elderly increased from 783,000 to 6,727,000, and those for children increased from 7,000 to 100,000. From 1988 to 2015 the government carried out a key state rehabilitation campaign, offering rehabilitation services for 27.98 million people with disabilities. By the end of 2015 there were 7,111 rehabilitation institutions for disabled persons, which employed 192,000 professionals, and 6,352 nursing agencies offering services to persons with learning, mental and physical disabilities, 2,323 more than the figure in 2010. In October 2016 China published the "Outline of Healthy China 2030" program, advocating that all people make fitness activities part of their life.

A security system covering the whole of society has taken shape. China has established a unified basic old-age insurance system for urban and rural residents throughout the country, and formulated policies to allow workers, and especially rural migrant workers, to participate in basic pension insurance for urban workers and for urban and rural residents. In 2015, 858 million people were covered by the basic pension insurance scheme, and 148 million urban and rural residents were receiving pensions. By the end of 2015 China had established a medical insurance system covering all citizens. The basic medical insurance for urban workers, basic medical insurance for urban residents, and the new rural cooperative medical insurance cover a total of 1,336 million people, keeping the insured rate above 95 percent. The reimbursement rate of hospitalization expenses for workers within the scope of the basic medical insurance exceeded 80 percent, with an increased maximum payment of six times the average annual salary of local workers, and the rate for urban residents within the coverage of the basic medical insurance was around 70 percent, an increase to six times the per capita disposable income of local residents. The reimbursement rates of hospitalization expenses for rural residents within the scope of the new rural cooperative insurance was above 75 percent. From 1994 to 2015, the number of people covered by unemployment insurance increased from 79.68 million to 176.09 million. In 2015, the revenues of the unemployment insurance fund reached RMB136.46 billion, and the expenditure was RMB73.65 billion, and the average monthly payment to the unemployed was increased to RMB968.4. The framework of a work-related injury insurance system involving work injury prevention, compensation, and rehabilitation has been established, which has seen the number of insured growing from 18.22 million in 1994 to 214.32 million in 2015. The number of women covered by the maternity insurance program increased from 9.16 million to 177.71 million.

Social assistance efforts continue to increase. In 1997, the Chinese government began to establish a nationwide system of basic living allowances. It promulgated the Regulations on Guaranteeing Basic Living Allowances for Urban Residents in 1999 and the Interim Measures for Social Assistance in 2014, to ensure all citizens have equal access to social assistance. From 1996 to 2015, the number of urban residents covered by the system of basic living allowances increased from 849,000 to 17.01 million, and, from 1999 to 2015, coverage of rural residents grew from 2.66 million to 49.04 million. The government continues to raise the basic living allowances. In 2011, it formally established a dynamic adjustment mechanism for basic living allowances. In 2015, the average basic living allowance line for urban residents was RMB451 per person per month, and the average monthly subsidy each person received from the government was RMB317. The average basic living allowance line for rural residents was RMB265 per person per month, and the average per capita monthly subsidy provided by the government was RMB147.

China has formulated a series of disaster prevention and relief plans and regulations, gradually strengthening and standardizing disaster relief work. From 2009 to 2015, the central government allocated RMB69.46 billion as natural disaster relief funds, averagely RMB9.9 billion for each year. In 2015, China provided medical assistance to 95.24 million people at a cost of RMB29.85 billion. The government also provides temporary relief to people who suffer sudden, urgent or temporary difficulties when other social assistance systems cannot cover them at the time, or people who still lack basic necessities after receiving assistance. In 2015, 6.67 million households received temporary relief. The industrial safety and emergency rescue system has been continuously improved. Altogether 32 provincial and 316 municipal emergency rescue centers, and 964 emergency rescue bases and teams have been established nationwide, covering coal, non-coal mines, chemicals, and other key industries. In 2015, they took part in 12,438 missions and rescued 44,344 people.

Equal access to education has improved. The gap between urban and rural education has been further narrowed. The Chinese government further promotes the balanced development of compulsory education, carries forward unified reform and development of compulsory education in urban and rural areas of counties, implements such projects as renovation of unsatisfactory compulsory education schools in poor areas, and works to improve conditions for compulsory education schools and teaching venues in rural areas.

The Chinese government strictly follows laws and regulations about compulsory education whereby school-age children should be enrolled in nearby schools without the need to sit exams. It also promotes the school district system and the nine-year compulsory system, under which an elementary school pupil will automatically move on to study in the junior high school in the same school district irrespective of his grades in the elementary school. In 2015, the State Council promulgated the "Notice on Further Improving the Mechanism Guaranteeing Funds for Compulsory Education in Urban and Rural Areas." With this notice, China established a mechanism for the first time that applies common funding standards to both urban and rural areas, with the focus on the latter. The mechanism benefits 140 million students, including more than 13 million children of rural migrant workers, more than 30 million boarding students, about 12 million private school students, and about 5 million small-scale school students and students receiving special education. From the fall semester of 2011, the government started to carry out a nutrition improvement program for rural students receiving compulsory education. The program benefits over 30 million students every year. Efforts have been made to increase the number of rural student enrollments in key universities. Since 2012, the government has implemented special national programs on targeted enrollment in rural and poor areas. In 2015, 75,000 students were enrolled, an increase of 10.5 percent over 2014.

Regional gap in education has further narrowed. The government has increased the college and university enrollment rate of the students from central and western provinces and expanded the scope of the Collaboration Program on Supporting Enrollment in Central and Western Regions. In 2015, the province with the lowest enrollment rate saw the gap with the national average narrowed from 15.3 percentage points in 2010 to less than 5 percentage points. The government has also established the Program on Rejuvenating Higher Education in Central and Western Regions. The central government has provided more funds to strengthen the basic facilities and performance of colleges and universities in these regions.

Educational gap between different groups has further narrowed. Female education has made remarkable progress. In 2013, the number of illiterate females aged 15 and above was 6.7 percent, 17.4 percentage points lower than that in 1995, and the illiterate female population had decreased by more than 70 million compared with 1995. The growth in the number of educated women and the decline in female illiteracy are both greater than those of males.

The government is striving to ensure equal access to compulsory education for children of rural migrant workers. In 2015, compulsory education schools in urban areas of China admitted a total of 13.67 million children of rural migrant workers, with around 80 percent studying at public schools and nearly 6 percent at private schools through a government-funded scheme. In 2016, the State Council promulgated the "Opinions on Strengthening Care and Protection of Left-behind Children in Rural Areas" and "Opinions on Strengthening Protection of Children in Difficult Situation" to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of minors. The Chinese government also works hard to offer greater education opportunities to persons with disabilities. There is one independent special education school in every county with a population of more than 300,000 people and a high population of disabled children. The government also supports the establishment of special education resource centers, encourages regular schools to enroll children with special needs, provides convenience for disabled students to take part in college entrance examinations, and promotes integrated education. Almost 90 percent of blind, deaf-mute, and mentally handicapped children have access to compulsory education. It works to improve the system for subsidizing students with financial difficulties, which offers full coverage from pre-school education to graduate education. In 2015, the government subsidized more than 84.33 million students throughout China, an increase of 29.36 percent compared with 2009, and spent more than RMB156.03 billion, 2.25 times the level of 2009.

The quality of education for ethnic minorities has been continuously improved. China has already created an ethnic education system including ethnic minority primary schools, middle schools, vocational colleges and higher education institutions. Before the PRC was founded in 1949, the illiteracy rate of ethnic minorities in China was above 95 percent, and there was only one higher education institution for ethnic minorities. In the early days of the PRC, there were only 1,300 ethnic minority students in institutions of higher learning across the country, accounting for only 1.4 percent of all students. By 2015 the education level of ethnic minority groups and ethnic minority areas had grown comprehensively. There were 25,955,700 ethnic minority students at that time. There were 32 different types of ethnic minority colleges and universities, and 2,142,900 junior college and college students from ethnic minority groups, accounting for 8.16 percent of the national total. Ethnic minority peoples have expanding access to a broader scope of higher education. Full coverage from undergraduate education to graduate education has been realized for all ethnic minority groups. All of China's 55 ethnic minority groups have graduate students. From 2012 to 2015, under the Program for Training High Caliber Core Personnel for Ethnic Minority Groups, China enrolled and trained 16,000 master's degree candidates and 4,000 doctoral candidates.

VII. Accelerating Environment-Friendly Development

China is committed to the concept of environment-friendly development and strives to expedite the country's ecological progress to deliver a more livable and beautiful environment for the people. It aims to make a good eco-environment a focal point for improving people's living standards, and create sustainable development that benefits all the people.

The basic state policy of environmental protection underpins environment-friendly development. In 1973 China convened its first national work conference on environmental protection, and adopted its first Law on Environmental Protection in 1979. In 1983 China made environmental protection a basic state policy. China became the first country in the world to formulate and implement a national sustainable development strategy when it released China's Agenda 21 in 1994. The year 2000 first saw protection of the eco-environment being incorporated into the national economic and social development program. Since 2013 China has been accelerating ecological progress in an all-round way; the CPC Central Committee and the State Council jointly issued "Opinions on Accelerating Ecological Progress" in 2015. A legal system pivoting on energy conservation and environmental protection has been formed, comprising 32 laws, 48 administrative regulations, and 85 departmental rules of the State Council. Currently, there are 14,257 government agencies involved in environmental protection at all levels.

By the end of 2015 national forestry coverage had reached 208 million ha, representing about 22 percent of China's total land area; the vegetation coverage rate of grasslands had reached 54 percent, and the greenery coverage rate of urban built-up areas was 40.1 percent. Nature reserves have been developing in a unified way. Today China has 2,740 nature reserves, covering a total area of 147.03 million ha.

Environmental governance enhances environment-friendly development. A national integrated decision-making mechanism and regional coordination mechanisms have been established for the protection of the eco-environment, forming an environmental governance system jointly implemented by the government, enterprises and the public. Research and development in the technology for environmental protection is improving, and there has been continuous reinforcement of environmental monitoring efforts and pollution control capability.

Air pollution control is making steady progress. The proportion of coal consumption in total energy provision is decreasing year by year, while the contribution of hydropower, wind power, nuclear power, natural gas and other types of clean energy is increasing. Since the beginning of the 11th Five-Year Program (2006-2010), China's energy consumption per RMB10,000 GDP has decreased by 34 percent, saving 1.57 billion tons of coal equivalent, more than half of the energy saved by the whole world in this period. In 2015 the urban wastewater treatment rate reached 91.9 percent, and the pollution-free disposal rate of urban domestic solid waste was 94.1 percent. Urban park green space per capita reached 13.35 square meters.

Ecological economics fosters environment-friendly development. China has completed a system of working centers for agricultural environmental protection, consisting of two at national level, 33 at provincial level, more than 300 at prefectural level, and more than 1,700 at county level. In the drainage basins of Taihu Lake, Chaohu Lake, Erhai Lake, the Three Gorges reservoir region, and other major drainage basins requiring pollution prevention and control, model areas of diffuse agricultural pollution prevention and control have been established, and 106 national model areas of eco-friendly prevention and control of plant diseases and pests have been set up, covering more than 33 million ha of farmland. More than 100 counties in two batches have been built into national models of ecological farming, prompting the development of over 500 provincial-level model counties. More than 2,000 model sites of ecological farming have been completed.

The agricultural hi-tech industry places its emphasis on long-term development. Field water application efficiency in agricultural irrigation has been raised to 0.536. Investments in technological upgrading have been reinforced, and efforts have been made to promote the new industrial development. Between January and September 2016, investments in industrial technological upgrading amounted to RMB6.6 trillion, an increase of 13.4 percent over the same period of 2015 and accounting for 40 percent of all industrial investments. The tertiary sector has been encouraged and supported to develop faster and generate more green GDP. The expanding Internet economy recorded a turnover of RMB3.88 trillion in the online retail industry in 2015, an increase of 33.3 percent over 2014.

Policy support bolsters environment-friendly development. The state has made active efforts to protect the sustainable development of ecologically fragile areas through integrated planning, targeted treatment, and the ecological compensation mechanism, creating a virtuous cycle for regional eco-environments. Ecological areas of medium fragility make up 55 percent of China's land area, with two thirds concentrated in the western regions. In 2005 the State Council prescribed restrictive development in ecologically fragile areas. The "Outline for the Conservation of Ecologically Fragile Areas in China (2009-2020)" was promulgated in 2008. By 2015 environmental impact assessment had been implemented in all ecologically fragile areas, a 30 percent increase of targeted areas had been brought under the strategy, and models of the ecological industry have been promoted in ecologically fragile areas.

Commitments to international conventions propel environmentally-friendly development. China was among the first countries to formulate and implement a national climate change plan, and pledged to achieve its 2020 goals laid out in the "National Plan on Climate Change (2014-2020)" and 2030 goals set out in the "Enhanced Actions on Climate Change: China's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions" released in 2015. Over the years, China has taken effective policy actions to honor its commitments. Moving along the path toward low-carbon development, China enacted the "National Plan for Reducing Ozone-depleting Substances" and achieved ahead of schedule its first-stage hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) phase-out goal as part of its commitment to the "Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer." China's reduction of ozone-depleting substances accounts for approximately half of the total reduction by developing countries. China has eliminated the production, use, and import and export of 17 of the 26 types of persistent organic pollutants listed in the "Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants," and reduced the dioxin emissions of three industries that are major emitters of dioxins by more than 15 percent. Furthermore, the state has established the National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation, enacted the "China Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2030)" and signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury. China is an active and constructive participant in international talks on climate change, and makes robust efforts to bolster the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. China has made significant efforts in moving the Paris Agreement on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation toward adoption and taking effect, making it one of the fastest major international agreements ever to enter into force and further contributing to the world's sustainable development.

VIII. Promoting Common Development

China upholds the principles of mutual respect, equality of treatment, win-win cooperation, and common development, and promotes the interests of its own people and the common interests of other peoples. China supports the developing countries, especially the least developed countries (LDCs), in reducing poverty, improving people's wellbeing and the development environment, in order to build a human community of shared future.

Defending the right to development. As an original member state of the United Nations, China participated in drafting the Charter of the United Nations and signed it, facilitated the publication of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights," upheld the principles prescribed in the "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights" and the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights," and facilitated the passing of the resolution on the new concepts of human rights and the resolution on the right to development. China participated in all the previous meetings of the Group of Governmental Experts of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) for drafting the "Declaration on the Right to Development," and made an important contribution to the formal adoption of the Declaration in 1986. China has always been a co-sponsor of UNCHR resolutions on the right to development, supporting the UNCHR's global debate on realizing the right to development, and consenting to the deliberation of the right to development by the UNCHR as a separate issue. Since the UNHRC was established in 2006, China has been elected as a member four times, and has contributed its wisdom and strength to making the right to development a mainstream issue.

Participating in the formulation of the development agenda. China was the first to voice support for the sustainable development strategy. It has supported and implemented the "United Nations Millennium Declaration," and achieved 13 of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. While effectively improving the protection of its own people's right to development, China has also promoted the common development of the world. It has helped the international community to pass and implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and issued "China's Position Paper on the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" and "China's National Plan on Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development." At the G20 Hangzhou Summit, China joined other countries in formulating the "G20 Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" and the "G20 Initiative on Supporting Industrialization in Africa and Least Developed Countries," adding impetus to the overall development of all countries and developing countries in particular. In September 2015 China and UN Women co-organized the Global Summit of Women, and implemented the goals related to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Expanding the path to development. Over the years, based on the principle that all countries are entitled to choose their own social systems and development paths, China has expanded its development mindset and philosophy, and joined other countries in seeking equitable, open, all-round and innovation-driven development. China strives for equitable development for all countries and for developing countries in particular, so that all countries can become participants in and contributors to global development and equitably share the interests of development. China calls on all countries, which share the same development goals yet are at different development levels, to take on common but differentiated responsibilities. China has advocated the developing countries' right to a greater voice in formulating the rules of the global governance system. China keeps the open-door policy while pursuing development. It joins other countries in upholding the multilateral trade regime and promotes the free flow of production factors around the world so that the achievements of development will benefit all parties and people in all countries. China pursues all-round development, to achieve balanced development between economy, society and environment, and to realize harmony between humanity and society, and between humanity and nature. China promotes innovation-driven development, addresses problems arising in development by means of development, and fosters new core competitiveness. China places great value on the leadership of the United Nations, encourages regional economic integration, and improves its competitive development by integrating the strengths and advantages of various parties, so as to fully release its development potential.

Furthering cooperation for development. China adheres to the principle of maintaining integrity and pursuing interests while giving priority to integrity, strives to improve the development capacity of all countries and the international development environment, partnership and coordination mechanisms for international development cooperation to realize the rights of all people to development. China propels inclusive and mutually-beneficial development, while participating in global economic governance. Regarding North-South economic cooperation as the main focus, China continues to expand South-South, tripartite, regional economic cooperation, and cooperation with emerging economies and, at the same time, explore more effective means of win-win cooperation. To realize common development the Chinese government endeavors to involve more countries and regions in the Belt and Road Initiative, relying on existing bilateral and multilateral mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, ASEAN Plus China (10+1) Summit, ASEAN Plus China, Japan and the ROK (10+3) Summit, East Asia Summit, China-Japan-ROK Cooperation, APEC, Asia-Europe Meeting, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, China-Arab States Cooperation Forum, China-Gulf Cooperation Council Strategic Dialogue, Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program, and Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation. China has established the Silk Road Fund, initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and set up the Lancang-Mekong River cooperation mechanism, in order to provide financing support for the Belt and Road countries to coordinate programs on infrastructure, resource development, and industrial and financial cooperation.

Increasing development aid. Over the past 60 years China has provided approximately RMB400 billion in aid to 166 countries and international organizations. It has trained more than 12 million personnel from developing countries, and dispatched over 600,000 people to aid development in other countries. Seven hundred people have given their lives in the course of these programs. Since 2008, China has been the largest export market of the LDCs, and absorbed about 23 percent of their exports. To improve economic growth and standards of living in the developing countries, China will set up a South-South Cooperation Fund, increase its investment in the LDCs, write off certain countries' debts, establish an International Development Knowledge Center and further the Belt and Road Initiative. In the coming five years China will implement six "One Hundred Programs" targeting developing countries - 100 poverty reduction programs, 100 agricultural cooperation programs, 100 trade aid programs, 100 eco-protection and climate change programs, 100 hospitals and clinics, and 100 schools and vocational training centers. One hundred and twenty thousand training opportunities and 150,000 scholarships will be made available to developing countries in China, and 500,000 vocational technical personnel will be trained. China will set up a South-South Cooperation and Development Academy, and give the World Health Organization US$2 million in cash aid.

Providing special treatment. China, as a developing country, is an advocate for a number of trade rights based on the principle of "Special and differential treatment," but not be obliged to provide the same treatment. However, in recent years, China has begun to provide "Special and differential treatment" to other developing countries, focusing on protecting the right to development of the LDCs. In 2002, China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signed the Framework Agreement on China-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Cooperation, offering special and differential treatment with flexibility to new ASEAN member states such as Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam. In 2006, China joined the Amendment to the First Agreement on Trade Negotiations Among Developing Member Countries of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. China's General Administration of Customs has issued three documents which have extended the range of countries enjoying its special preferential tariff from African countries to 40 LDCs recognized by the United Nations.

Improving the development environment. China joins other countries in safeguarding international peace, opposes all forms of terrorism, and supports international and regional cooperation in fighting terrorism, in order to create an environment of peace and harmony that promotes development and thereby consolidates peace. In recent years, China has offered solutions to regional flashpoints: involving itself in the Iran nuclear talks; mediating for national reconciliation in South Sudan; proposing a four-step framework for political settlement of the Syrian issue; facilitating the peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban; promoting consensus on resuming the six-party talks on the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula. To date, China has sent 33,000 military, police and civilian personnel to join UN peacekeeping missions. Currently there are 2,600-plus Chinese peacekeeping personnel involved in 10 UN peacekeeping operations, making China the most active permanent member of the UN Security Council in terms of supplying peacekeeping personnel. In order to support and improve peacekeeping operations, China will join the new UN peacekeeping standby mechanism, take the lead in establishing regular peacekeeping police force units, and organize peacekeeping standby forces. In the coming five years China will train 2,000 peacekeeping personnel for other countries, launch 10 demining aid programs, provide US$100 million of non-reimbursable military aid to the African Union, and allocate part of the China-UN Peace and Development Fund to support UN peacekeeping operations.

Conclusion

In the pursuit of development and their right to development, the Chinese people have made strenuous efforts and significant achievements. To promote common development and to build a community with shared future, China has made unremitting efforts and played an important role. It will always be a defender of humanity's right to development, and a force to propel development and progress throughout the world.

There will always be room for improvement in human rights, and the quest to improve people's right to development is always underway. As the world's largest developing country China faces daunting challenges, characterized by pressing problems such as unbalanced, uncoordinated, and unsustainable development. To achieve a higher level of development and better protect the people's right to development, China needs to maintain its efforts. Meeting the people's growing material and cultural needs and giving everyone access to sound development are still the primary tasks of the CPC in its governance of the country.

The Chinese people are working hard to achieve the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. With the realization of these goals, China will make a historic and unprecedented leap, and the Chinese people's right to development will be further protected.

At the UN Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping called upon all nations to mark a new starting point with the adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and unite to chart a path of development that is fair, open, comprehensive, and innovative. China will continue to work with the international community, strengthen cooperation, promote exchanges of experience, and make its due contribution to further increase the level of development of all peoples of the world and build a community with shared future for mankind.

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